Saturday, 25 April 2015

Media Watch May 2015 Abstract

Abstract: Media Watch May 2015
Vol.6, No. 2
Impact Factors: SJIF (3.276), IIFS (0.993), ISRA (0.834)


DoI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65673
Interfaces in shaping newsroom and readership: Switching between news making and consumption in web synced platforms

Issue Editor
Amity University, Rajasthan

“Every new medium begins as a container for the old” - Marshall McLuhan

The relation between mass media and digital environment is practiced and studied over the two decades. The web-synced journalism, not only changed the storytelling, but also the reception of
the news. The user could do act upon the news making process and information sharing, which itself questions the role of the journalist in the digital age. There are various media interfaces reinvented and restructured which plays a vital role in journalist work space. The myths behind such computer communication systems and their output need to be studied which will pave the way for understanding journalism and mass media from a digital age perspective.
          Making it simple, understanding the interface in the mass media context is a collaborative body of hardware and software which connect to share information. It will be the combination of various levels of operating systems, computer languages, applications, software, hardware and other features. The popularity of social media in the making and reception of the news enables interface controlled newsrooms. From the traditional use of microphone to the latest touch and talk applications, interfaces do make a greater shift in the mass communication. It not only lay platform for the communication, but also enabling them to perform in its method. The job of a news reporter or editor becomes very perfunctory that their role is to fit the space which combined with such interfaces.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65659
Effect of Audience Personality Traits on Reality Show Watching Motives

VARSHA JAIN1 & SUBHADIP ROY21Mudra Institute of Communication, Ahmedabad, India2Indian Institute of Management, Udaipur, India

The relationship between viewer personality and reality show watching has been a point of discussion among media researchers but has been rarely tested. The authors in the present study explore: (i) Reality Show Watching Motives (RSWM) of viewers, (ii) further investigates the impact of viewer personality on RSWM in a developing nation context. The authors followed mixed method approach to this end. A qualitative approach was applied to investigate consumer perceptions about reality shows and generate RSWM items. This was followed by a large scale survey to relate viewer personality to RSWM. Structural equation modelling was applied to generate findings in the quantitative phase. Five RSWM dimensions emerged from the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Consumer personality was found to have a significant impact on RSWM dimensions. However, there was variation on the effect of individual personality dimensions on individual RSWM dimensions. The study has theoretical and managerial implications.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65660

Mapping the Portrayal of Females in Contemporary Indian Advertisements


Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, India

The role of advertising as an effective vehicle of communication has long been acknowledged. It has become the important ‘part of the cultural and economic fabric of a society and continues to be a primary tool for marketing communication’ (Lane et. al., 2005). The current study examines the portrayal of women in contemporary Indian magazine and television advertisements in various product and service categories. The present study is an effort to fill the gap of limited research on gender representation in Indian context. Using content analysis, a total of 275 advertisements comprising print and television ads were examined. The result reveals the dominance of female stereotyping in Indian advertising where females were mostly depicted as a housewife, predominantly endorsing household products and mostly young female models were preferred for brand promotion by advertisers.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65662

Rural Women Psychology and Emotional Contents in Indian Television Advertisements


Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India

The current study examines the effect of emotional contents in television advertising on the rural

women and how they understand and react towards these advertisements. The study further leads us to the issues of cognitive behaviour of rural women after the advertisement has influenced their emotional corridor. For this study 167 women are selected from rural districts of Maharashtra and cluster sampling approach is used. 5 point Likert scale with the range from strongly disagree to strongly agree is used along with structured questionnaire. Contents of the advertisement are broken down it to defined parts like model, slogan, jingle etc for the easy understanding and correct answering from the respondents and it helps us in understanding the role played by each variable in the emotional outcome of the respondent after viewing the advertisement. This study provides the insights to the marketers and advertisers about the factors which actually influences the rural women and persuades them and further provides a direction in developing an effective communication approach towards this particular market segment.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65664

Recognizing the Politics of Visual Imagery through Transplanted Traditions in Indian Television Soap Operas

Tripura University, India

Television is known to be a powerful provoker and circulator of meanings. The attempt in this article is to read the discursive elements of female soap opera protagonists and find out if they are idealised partly as religious devotees in their whole existence. Wars of production and re-enforcement of meanings are often waged in media space. Therefore an analysis of ‘character reading’ of the soap operas broadcast in the Hindi networks will help focus analytical attention on different forms of hegemonic power that constitute the text. The objective of this article is to delve into the textual and semiotic codifications used in the characterisation of the protagonists of the select soap operas under study. These codes will help in describing the phenomenon of creating religious devotees in soap operas.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65665

What Gamification Tells Us about Web Communication


Mississippi State University, USA

The games that have become a staple on Facebook provide lessons on how to make websites and Internet marketing more successful. We highlight these points that gamers have accomplished: Provide ideological agreement, Create a community, Provide a sense of control or autonomy, Create a way for people to communicate with each other, Recognize gender differences, Provide rewards, and Convince people to commit.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65666

Fictional Depictions of Youth in School in Films Made in China and United States


Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

This study discussed the differences between Chinese youth film and American teen film through the perspective on cultural foundation. The authors argue that Confucianism was an alternative that greatly affects the depiction of young characters and the causal relationship of morality and fate of the characters in films. The objective of such a comparison was not to advocate for either Chinese or American youth cinema in portraying young people, but to promote a better understanding of the strengths and impacts of youth cinema and youth genre. In addition, this study examined cinematic depictions of young characters portrayed in Chinese youth films and American teen films. It was argued that Chinese youth films and American youth films differ in depictions of school settings and even their purposes.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65668

Glocalisation, Cultural Identity, and the Political Economy of Indian Television


Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, India

From its Delhi moorings in the late 1950’s till date, the Indian television has gone through steady evolution marked by phases of silent or radical revolution. Born with a political agenda of national reconstruction and turning out to be an ideological hegemony, its course has been redefined by absorbing transnational media participation and the dispersion of ideas in regional channels. It is to be noted that the Indian media market has shown resistance to both global as well as national cultural hegemony. While large scale glocalisation by the transnational media networks these days is the recognition that Indian market and culture cannot be radically colonised, the expansion of regional language channels later has weakened the hegemonic authority of national networks. The Indian market today is defined by the simultaneous presence of the global, the local, the regional, and the glocal media signifiers. Taken together, these significations point at a larger picture of glocalisation of market culture, especially, where the consumer agency consists of participants across space, class, gender, and generation.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65669

Political Mapping of Media in India


Kalindi College, University of Delhi, India

Every day media is interpreting the space with a new name, identity and representation. The media discourse shaped in such extent that the identity of a space is deflecting from original and existing together with new name both together as well. The constructed identity and existing identity of the region is shaped in such an extent that the space is known with a new identity apart from original social, cultural and geographical identity. How the issue of reservation, caste and corruption being fixed with a regional space and the issues found more or less everywhere same in the country. How media fixed these spaces with new identity where roles of media was inevitable. The study inhibits specific issues based news from both print and visual media and assessing viewers through it and mapping the region over it. The study based on field surveys across six capital cities (Lucknow, Patna, Ranchi, Delhi, Jaipur and Bhopal) of northern India where political fever remain found high and both media and politicians supposed to shaping and reshaping these spaces in order to reflect a mediated identity apart from traditional identity.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65670

Twittering Public Sentiments: A Predictive Analysis of Pre-Poll Twitter Popularity of Prime Ministerial Candidates for the Indian Elections 2014


Amrita Vishwa VidyaPeetham, Coimbatore, India

Twitter is a useful tool for predicting election outcomes, effectively complementing traditional opinion polling. This study undertakes a volume, sentiment and engagement analysis for predicting the popularity of Prime Ministerial candidates on Twitter as a run-up to the Indian Elections 2014. The results from a survey of 2,37,639 pre-poll tweets finds tweet volume as a significant predictor of candidate vote share, and volume and sentiments as predictors for candidate engagement levels. Higher engagement rates evolve from the horizontality of conversations about the candidate, therefore indicating a high degree of interactivity, but do not translate into a higher vote share.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i2/65672

Indian Television in the Eras of Pre-Liberalisation and Liberalisation


Jagran Lakecity University, India

India witnessed a revolution in the television communication landscape following the shift in the economic policies in 1991. This analytical study looks into the changes and additions in the functions performed by mass communication using television medium before and after the implementation of liberalization policies in India. Tables are included to provide overviews of the historical developments at different periods and to distinguish the functions performed by television communication. In addition to information, education, entertainment, correlation and mobilization functions, empowerment and need satisfaction are also accounted as functions added in the due course of mass communication progression in the transnational and digitized era.

Wednesday, 24 December 2014

Call for Papers

Call for Papers: Media Watch
Social Media: A virtual world where ‘social beings’ live

It won’t be preposterous to comment that we eat, sleep and live on social media. While a large majority views it as the ‘next big thing’, for a few it is already part of our routine system of work and life.  The Guardian’s ‘Mood of the Nation’ research (2014) conducted on UK citizen found that using social media makes the people happier when compared to money and family. The privilege or choice of being connected to a world outside one’s reach is the core principle that makes these social sites an immediate advantageous tool for marketing or any other online undertakings.With the rapid growth of internet and associated network technologies with a huge rise in the use of tablet and mobile phones, social media is becoming even more ubiquitous and exhilarating. The consequences of this change and evolution are influencing every aspects of human life.

Keeping apart all these obvious terrains of social media explosion, what makes social networking significantly popular in the academic world is its potential in redefining space, society and identity. Being ‘social’ is acomprehensive expression holding many meanings at different point of references. As social media form a major part of a Company/Institute’s reputation, marketing and social identity, their presence online is given much prominence and precision, whereby the employers’ social presence is also being scrutinized. 

At this juncture, Media Watch opens an opportunity for the effervescent media scholars to contribute their outlook and research findings on social media. The research topics include, but not limited to –
·         Social media activism
·         Social media in Politics
·         Stardom and Social media                                         
·         Social Communication
·         Social media and para-social relationship                
·         Virtual reality
·         Film and social media marketing                              
·         Ethics and social media
·         Social Media and Critical Thinking                            
·         Journalist on social media
·         Social media theories and its relevance                   
·         Tweets, Likes, Comments, Hashtag
·         Identity conflicts online                                             
·         Privacy and security online
·         Social network mediated communication

For detail information, please visit the journal website:

Current Issue: January 2015

Issue Editor                : Rohini Sreekumar
Editor-in- Chief          : Dr. Sony Jalarajan Raj

Send your research article submissions to:

Friday, 12 December 2014

Abstract: Media Watch January 2015
(Vol. 6, No. 1)

Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55371
Sharing Fear via Facebook: A Lesson in Political Public Relations

Jan Boehmer1 & Michael B. Friedman2
1University of Miami, Florida, USA
2University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA

Our study compared the use of fear messages on Facebook by Barack Obama and Mitt Romney during the 2012 U.S. presidential elections. Results show that written fear messages embedded in photographs posted on Facebook by both candidates affected the degree to which those photographs were shared. More specifically, photographs containing written fear messages were shared more often than photographs not containing written fear messages. Furthermore, while the challenging candidate, Mitt Romney, used more photographs containing fear messages, the increase in shares was consistent across candidates. Implications regarding information distribution within communities, public relations practitioners specializing in political campaigning and society as a whole are discussed.
DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55376
Fake News? A Survey on Video News Releases and their Implications on Journalistic Ethics, Independence and Credibility of Broadcast News

Chandra Clark & Shuhua Zhou
University of Alabama, USA

The traditional lines between journalism and public relations are now intertwined and public relations practitioners have an influential role on the content consumers see every day in newspapers and on news broadcasts. This survey looked at video news releases and their implications about journalists’ ethics, integrity, independence and credibility. 533 participants from three different populations (average viewers, communication college students, and journalists) responded to a 54-question survey that employed two predictors (i) level of experience and (ii) years of journalism experience. The results indicated that average viewers found the use of video news releases (VNRs) more unethical than journalists and communication students, although experienced journalists believed VNR use is having an impact on journalistic independence in news. Implications are discussed.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55381
Perception of Government Public Relations Practice by the People in Sabah: A Public Opinion Survey

Mohd Hamdan bin Adnan
University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

This survey focuses on how the people in Sabah perceived Malaysia’s governmental public relations practice and their perception of the government based upon it. It includes how the different types of mass media and its content that they expose themselves to have influence their image of the nation administration as well as its policies and implementations. Also included are how their own experience with the various government agencies has impacted their views with regard to those authorities specifically and the government generally. Method used for this public opinion survey is the random sampling technique. Respondents selected were 600 people based on four categories. All of them were located in and around Kota Kinabalu and chosen randomly. For the interview a structured questionnaire was prepared and pilot tested on 40 respondents with ten from each category. This survey finding further revealed that the media the public chose and exposed themselves to, do impact their perception of the government and its public relations, positively or negatively, depending on its content. However, the survey found that the impact was rather moderate with about half of the respondents declaring positively and the remainder not so positive and a few negatively.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55387
Advertising and Ethnicities: A Comparative Study of Sri Lanka and Northeast India

Darshana Liyanage
University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka 

Ethnicity has become a key interest of advertisers in diverse societies. Contrary to the popular argument that ethnic identities are threatened by the intensified influence of media and consumer culture, they have become the core sites of representation and reproduction of ethnic identities. It is arguable that in today’s (mass) mediated societies there are no ways of imagining ethnicities without the media’s influence and impact on them.  Advertising1, no longer a mere commercial activity, is an important component of popular culture and hence plays a crucial part in the social and cultural life of our times. Sri Lanka2 has long been a country of communal unrest, which culminated in a civil war. Northeast India is a region where a number of conflicting identities are in a constant battle of production and reproduction. The ways the ethnic identities are represented in advertisements in these two societies are worthy of studying in this context. When ad-makers segment a market for a particular brand, they mostly rely on ethnic identities. As a result, advertisements too become a site of reproduction of ethnic identities. This paper is intended to identify and analyze the ways of representations of ethnic identities in advertisements in Northeast India3 and Sri Lanka by a comparative reading of a sample of print and electronic advertisements.   

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55389
Community-Based Media in Promoting Identity and Culture: A Case Study in Eastern Thailand

Griffith University, Australia

This paper analyses the role of community-based media in information distribution in the Riverside community, a cultural tourism destination in Chanthaburi, Eastern Thailand. It has started to produce its own media, and to use social networks to promote itself to the nation. Exploring the role of community media produced by locals will reinforce the idea that community media have provided much more effective communication channels for local people in a community environment. By using ethnographic action research as a methodology, this research gains strength through a rich understanding of the community by following an ongoing research cycle of planning, doing, observing and reflecting. Moreover, this study reflects the idea of ‘hyperlocal’ media. With approximately one hundred households on which to focus, it is much easier for ‘hyperlocal’ to reach local people by providing local news, covering local politics and engaging people in the affairs relevant to their area.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55390
Social Media Challenges and Adoption Patterns among Public Relations Practitioners

Radhe Krishan
Vivekananda Institute of Professional Studies, New Delhi, India

Social media has altered the design of modern society. It has changed the way people lived and worked. Though no profession or industry is left untouched by the communication revolution stirred by social media, yet communication professionals bore maximum impact. This paper analyzed the usage and perception of public relation (PR) professionals regarding the use of social media, particularly, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.  The primary research questions, this paper attempted to find answers for, are: (i) Did social media transformed the modus operandi of PR practitioners?; (ii) Do PR practitioners rely on one social media tool/platform over the other?; and (iii) To find out whether social media is an aid or a burden for a PR practitioner? By attempting to answer these three questions the paper explored fresh aspects of social media with regards to public relations. For the purpose of the study a survey was conducted among PR practitioners based in Delhi and working with prominent multinational companies or PR agencies.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55391
Branding Unity: Impact of Advertisements
on Patriotism, Unity and Communal Harmony

Jyoti Raghavan
Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi, India

Patriotism and national unity have become favorite brand positioning propositions for advertisers in India. The paper explores the reasons behind the popularity of these patriotic themes that also embrace notions of nationhood, communal harmony and national unity in commercials and public service advertisements. While these patriotic themes used to be the exclusive domain of the government media in the country, they are being taken up in a big way by private business houses in their public communication endeavors. The research study has examined six frequently telecast advertisements on Indian television networks centered upon the theme of national pride, communal harmony and national unity. While tracing the historical context of these advertisements, the paper also attempts to study their impact upon the public. The primary research for the study comprised interviews with respondents to explore the impact of these advertisements upon the public. The findings of the study show that positioning brands on the themes of national pride, unity and patriotism succeed in establishing a strong emotional connect in public minds leading to brand recall.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55393
Communication through Advocacy Advertising
for Public Health Promotion

Mahendra Kumar Padhy
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, India

This research work is an investigation into the reception of anti-smoking advertisements that make use of “fear appeals”. The objective of the research is to bring audience perceptions, interpretations and making sense processes of such advertising campaigns to the limelight. Instead of measuring effects or effectiveness of anti-smoking messages using shocking images, this project has at its basis the assumption of an active audience that interprets, makes sense and decodes media texts in various ways. Research methods used in this study are qualitative by nature.  Research findings show that the prospective audience champion the use of anti-smoking advertisements and see the use of fear appeals as a one-way road to drawing the audience’s attention, they nevertheless perceive these communication efforts in a highly individualized manner, resisting to advertising techniques of persuasion and showing signs of desensitization towards fear appeals. Findings show that advocacy advertising using fear appeals are always decoded within the wider media context and the identity of smokers themselves often nourished by media representations of smoking, which plays an  role in the way the audience gives different interpretations and relates to these messages.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55397
Digital Access and Inequality among Primary School Children in Rural Coimbatore

Sudha Venkataswamy
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India

This paper examines the dynamics of access and exclusion in children’s Internet use, in both private and public school spaces and interrogates the role of socioeconomic and demographic predictors as well as the schooling system in shaping Internet habits. More specifically, it explores the nature of Internet use by primary school children, mainly for education and information and attempts to understand the differences across and within two types of schools- a rural public school and an elite private school. Through in-depth interviews, this research investigates the level of computer and Internet literacy among the primary school children in the age group of 8-10 years and reports the differences observed among the various social dimensions. It attempts to stress the significance and need in today’s context to provide the opportunities for physical and material access so that disadvantaged children are not excluded from the digital opportunities.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55438
Social Media and the Arab Spring

M. Rabindranath & Sujay Kapil
Central University of Himachal Pradesh, India

This paper discusses the effect of social media on the occurrence of ‘Arab Spring’. In the Arab world no country could claim to be truly democratic and most were autocratic coupled with desertification (68.4 per cent of the total land area), phenomenal rise in population and scarcity of water. Moreover, about 60 per cent of the population is under 25 years and this group belonging to lower- middle class with high education, self- constructed status, wider world views and global dreams forced them to raise their voice and change the autocratic set up. But, in the absence of effective social media since the year 2000 made it possible to raise their voice unitedly through facebook, twitter and blogs culminating to the ouster of Hosne Mubarak in Egypt. The ‘top to down’ approach adopted by the Western social scientists, thus proved wrong and ‘bottom to top’ approach through social media brought the dramatic changes in Arab nations.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55398
Constructing a Comprehensive Coverage Criterion of Indian States and Union Territories News

Umesh Arya
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, India

The study posits a twelve pronged formulation of indices to measure the over coverage and under coverage of the Indian states and union territories by newspapers on socio-economic, demographical and political aspects. Union territories (UT), mainly Delhi and Chandigarh were unjustifiably favoured on all twelve counts which clearly points out media’s biased leanings to cater to the regional aspirations and preference to the power center. Northern states were most favourably covered and the coverage reduced with increasing distance of the state from the power center i.e., the capital of India whereas north eastern states suffered severe coverage blackout. Quantitative and spatial indices were developed to see news coverage in a new perspective.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55399
Public relations: Scope and Challenges in Digital Era

Manish Verma
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kangra, India
With the emergence of new media in 21st century communication industry has been revolutionized. Although digital or social media provides an advantage to reach the audience in minimum time but it is critical to draft a right message for this medium. Digital media has indeed changed the way of communication for public relation practitioners around the world. Now information is disseminated much quicker through the internet and mobile phones. In this digital era, it is imperative that public relation would need to adapt to technological advancement happening around the world and utilize this advancement as tools to effectively reach its audiences and achieve the communication objectives. To achieve public relation, it has become important for a PR practitioner to adapt to these new changes. The new technologies and methods of communication have made public relations a much more versatile and effective tool. New communication technologies allow inventive ways to accomplish a public relation campaign to build stronger association and trust between businesses and target consumers. 

Friday, 12 September 2014

Media Watch September 2014 Abstracts

Abstract: Media Watch September 2014

(Vol. 5, No. 2)

Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834

Pseudo-Events as a Mesocyclone: Rethinking Boorstin’s Concept in  the Digital Age

University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, USA

Daniel J. Boorstin’s concept of pseudo-events has been around almost as long as Queen Elizabeth II’s reign as monarch. 2012 was the year of the Diamond Jubilee, a 60-year anniversary, which can be viewed as a giant pseudo-event made from smaller pseudo-events. Compliant media were ready and willing to present images reinforcing the power, authority, and naturalness of the monarchy. The Diamond Jubilee, as an event and subject of analysis, exemplified the reconceptualization of pseudo-events using the analogy of a Mesocyclone. The Mesocyclone model of social media and journalism relations, developed in this study, reflects the transformation of relations between media planners, the news media, and the public. The Mesocyclone represents the challenges faced by media planners in creating, sharing, and encouraging others to participate in the process while attempting to keep the news media and public aligned with the event’s message. However, the Mesocyclone is unpredictable because social media sharing has enabled the news media and public to craft their own messages, as well as possibly change the meaning of the event. Boorstin’s concept of pseudo-events has been expanded by also considering Louis Althusser’s Ideological State Apparatus in using the Diamond Jubilee’s pro-monarchy theme as an example.

Journalistic News Framing of White Mainstream Media during the Civil Rights Movement: A Content Analysis  of the Montgomery Bus Boycott

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA

Most social movements receive some type of news media coverage during the course of the movement. How the media covers a social movement and its participants is critical in the influence it plays on media consumers. This study analyzes the news framing of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. On December 5, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a white man. That act of refusal resulted in a 381-day protest of the city’s segregated bus system. This research elucidates how the boycott was framed in the local newspaper, Montgomery Advertiser. The findings of this study are crucial in understanding the complexity of past and contemporary social movements, and how social norms may influence the ensuing news coverage.

The Hegemonic Dance Partners: United States and North Korea

Mississippi State University

On March 31, 2014 North Korea and South Korea shot artillery shells into each country’s territorial waters. No one was injured in another incident of the 60 years of conflict on the Korean peninsula. This rather nonsensical activity of war is just another step in the hegemonic dance steps initiated by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. This paper applies the theory of hegemony to explain why the leadership of North Korea requires on-going conflict without war.

 Visual Exploration of Environmental Issues:  Photographers as Environmental Advocates

University of Miami, USA

Photographers of recent years document land, nature, and the environment to reveal to the public, politicians and lawmakers decay or spoiled lands, endangered cultures and wildlife, and other issues affecting the degradation of Earth’s natural resources and all its inhabitants. Different from their predecessors, contemporary photographers use all media to expose and make the public aware of wide-ranging environmental concerns. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore how photographers visually document environmental issues. Interviews and analysis of environmental and nature photographers’ websites are the primary sources for this exploratory study. Findings reveal photographers do not just document the environment, they engage in media as activism. More than words and pictures, media activism comprises a myriad of mediated content from still photos, to moving images, graphics, audio, web and mobile devices, as well as social media all in an effort to improve society.

Press and Corporate Reputation: Factors Affecting Biasness of Business News Reporting in Malaysia

School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia

In Malaysia, media bias has always been a hot debated issue. The ruling Barisan Nasional coalition often portrays itself as an advocate of press freedom while the masses often feel otherwise as media organisations are either directly or indirectly owned by component parties of the Barisan Nasional. Readers therefore commonly accuse these organisations of practising media control although the latter often maintains that they are free from external factors or from governmental control. Till date, researches about media biasness have only studied the effects of media biasness on corporate reputations but not about the factors associated to such biasness and are often done within Western contexts. This paper fills these gaps by examining the links between the personal interest of a journalist and their level of compliance with the National Union of Journalists’ Code of Conduct, audience pressure, political interests, and the biasness of business news reporting in Malaysia.

I am Pretty and I know It: Redefining Masculinities in The King and The Clown

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

The contemporary Korean films and dramas that featuring a body of new representation of pretty boys or what are popularly known as metrosexuality have challenged the conventional association of Korean masculinity to the prevalent macho images. This article intends to focus on the soft-spoken, delicate and neat man featured in The King and the Clown (2005) by examining the cinematic figuration of such masculinity in order to reveal the underpinning ideology of capitalism within the film through the mechanism of representation. It is argued that the construction of pretty boy in this film serves to promote a non-conformative male identity and yet subjects itself to a manipulative consumerist gaze which embedding the ideological position of selling ‘prettiness’ as commodification of masculinity.

Portuguese Democracy and Patterns of Transformation in National  Newspapers: A Comparative Model Approach

University of Porto, Portugal

The Portuguese Revolution of 1974 produced a major transformation on media property. According to the legislation approved by the revolutionary rulers during 1975, all the banks and their interests were nationalized. Almost all main tittles of national press were included in this process, because they were partial or totally owned by societies belonging to the most important financial corporations. The Portuguese state became the owner of a large media group. The analysis of main aspects like political statements, data on press production, official reports allow the identification of the media evolution in this period. This study is focused on editorial policy, management failure and professional behavior, and the relationship between governments and the press. The purpose of this article is to establish a connection between the failure of state policy and the decline of national newspapers and, by opposite, transformations that took place in the Portuguese media property during the nineties.

Media Management Trends, Techniques, and Dynamics: An Indian Experience

Osmania University, India

Globally, Media is going through a drastic transformation. The fight for survival is leading to innovation of technologies and creativity in the fields of journalism and mass communication, and in this process many organizations are adapting newer forms of journalism. Media moguls irrespective of their age and borders are relentlessly spearheading cross media ownerships combined with convergence of media platforms, paving way for media management to be studied from a never before seen perspective. However, as media industries continue to consolidate and expand their operations beyond domestic borders, it has become all the more imperative to study and research media management with respect to trends, techniques and dynamics from a global standpoint of media consolidation, diversification, and convergence.

Social Movements and Digital Storytelling: Challenges and Prospects in India

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, India

This research aims at analysing popularity of digital media among youth for information sharing and generating support for social movements. The user-friendly technology, the reduced cost of production of digital content, and spread of the internet in peri-urban areas have changed the sender and the receiver position dramatically. Once the receivers of the media content are now actively involved in the production and dissemination of digital content. The concept of the gatekeeper is not relevant to the new media content as most of the matter comes directly from the users. The majority of the content is uploaded to various social networking sites without interference of gatekeepers. The digital media have empowered the common man and provided them another platform to share and express their views on various issues of public interest. It seems that this forum has great potential to help in strengthening democratic movements in India by promoting multiple voices on several issues of public interest, that too, without the interference of any gatekeeper.


Mass Media Preference and Consumption in Rural India: A Study on Bharat Nirman Campaign

Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi

This paper seeks to explore the media habits and preferences of rural audience in India. The study adopted purposive along with random sampling techniques to identify stakeholders in six states of the country who were targeted for the Bharat Nirman campaign conducted by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. The results indicated that television is the best medium to target rural and semi-urban audiences for public service advertising. Doordarshan’s regional channels remained one of the preferred communication medium for accessing information along with other regional channels. Newspapers and radio appeared to seriously lag behind as mass media vehicles of choice in comparison to television. The mobile telephone had made some inroads; however, it was hardly being used as a medium for accessing public service information.

Regional News Channels in India: A Study on Viewers Perspective

Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India
Manav Rachna International University, India

Satellite television news network have never expanded as they have in India. In less than a decade, between 1998 and 2006, India has experienced the rise of more than 50 24-hours satellite news channels, broadcasting news in different languages. They are a prominent part of a vibrant satellite television industry, comprising more than 300 channels, that has targeted Indian homes since the early 1990s. In one form or the other, at least 106 of these broadcast daily news in 14 regional languages, and their emergence marks a sharp break with the past. They have arisen in a country where the state had monopolised broadcasting since independence, and as late as 1991, India had only one government-controlled television network. The rise of satellite television, and satellite news network, has engendered a transformation in India’s political culture, the nature of the state  and expressions of Indian nationhood.