Friday, 12 December 2014

Abstract: Media Watch January 2015
(Vol. 6, No. 1)

Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55371
Sharing Fear via Facebook: A Lesson in Political Public Relations

Jan Boehmer1 & Michael B. Friedman2
1University of Miami, Florida, USA
2University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA

Our study compared the use of fear messages on Facebook by Barack Obama and Mitt Romney during the 2012 U.S. presidential elections. Results show that written fear messages embedded in photographs posted on Facebook by both candidates affected the degree to which those photographs were shared. More specifically, photographs containing written fear messages were shared more often than photographs not containing written fear messages. Furthermore, while the challenging candidate, Mitt Romney, used more photographs containing fear messages, the increase in shares was consistent across candidates. Implications regarding information distribution within communities, public relations practitioners specializing in political campaigning and society as a whole are discussed.
  
DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55376
Fake News? A Survey on Video News Releases and their Implications on Journalistic Ethics, Independence and Credibility of Broadcast News

Chandra Clark & Shuhua Zhou
University of Alabama, USA

The traditional lines between journalism and public relations are now intertwined and public relations practitioners have an influential role on the content consumers see every day in newspapers and on news broadcasts. This survey looked at video news releases and their implications about journalists’ ethics, integrity, independence and credibility. 533 participants from three different populations (average viewers, communication college students, and journalists) responded to a 54-question survey that employed two predictors (i) level of experience and (ii) years of journalism experience. The results indicated that average viewers found the use of video news releases (VNRs) more unethical than journalists and communication students, although experienced journalists believed VNR use is having an impact on journalistic independence in news. Implications are discussed.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55381
Perception of Government Public Relations Practice by the People in Sabah: A Public Opinion Survey

Mohd Hamdan bin Adnan
University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

This survey focuses on how the people in Sabah perceived Malaysia’s governmental public relations practice and their perception of the government based upon it. It includes how the different types of mass media and its content that they expose themselves to have influence their image of the nation administration as well as its policies and implementations. Also included are how their own experience with the various government agencies has impacted their views with regard to those authorities specifically and the government generally. Method used for this public opinion survey is the random sampling technique. Respondents selected were 600 people based on four categories. All of them were located in and around Kota Kinabalu and chosen randomly. For the interview a structured questionnaire was prepared and pilot tested on 40 respondents with ten from each category. This survey finding further revealed that the media the public chose and exposed themselves to, do impact their perception of the government and its public relations, positively or negatively, depending on its content. However, the survey found that the impact was rather moderate with about half of the respondents declaring positively and the remainder not so positive and a few negatively.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55387
Advertising and Ethnicities: A Comparative Study of Sri Lanka and Northeast India

Darshana Liyanage
University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka 

Ethnicity has become a key interest of advertisers in diverse societies. Contrary to the popular argument that ethnic identities are threatened by the intensified influence of media and consumer culture, they have become the core sites of representation and reproduction of ethnic identities. It is arguable that in today’s (mass) mediated societies there are no ways of imagining ethnicities without the media’s influence and impact on them.  Advertising1, no longer a mere commercial activity, is an important component of popular culture and hence plays a crucial part in the social and cultural life of our times. Sri Lanka2 has long been a country of communal unrest, which culminated in a civil war. Northeast India is a region where a number of conflicting identities are in a constant battle of production and reproduction. The ways the ethnic identities are represented in advertisements in these two societies are worthy of studying in this context. When ad-makers segment a market for a particular brand, they mostly rely on ethnic identities. As a result, advertisements too become a site of reproduction of ethnic identities. This paper is intended to identify and analyze the ways of representations of ethnic identities in advertisements in Northeast India3 and Sri Lanka by a comparative reading of a sample of print and electronic advertisements.   

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55389
Community-Based Media in Promoting Identity and Culture: A Case Study in Eastern Thailand

PISAPAT YOUKONGPUN
Griffith University, Australia

This paper analyses the role of community-based media in information distribution in the Riverside community, a cultural tourism destination in Chanthaburi, Eastern Thailand. It has started to produce its own media, and to use social networks to promote itself to the nation. Exploring the role of community media produced by locals will reinforce the idea that community media have provided much more effective communication channels for local people in a community environment. By using ethnographic action research as a methodology, this research gains strength through a rich understanding of the community by following an ongoing research cycle of planning, doing, observing and reflecting. Moreover, this study reflects the idea of ‘hyperlocal’ media. With approximately one hundred households on which to focus, it is much easier for ‘hyperlocal’ to reach local people by providing local news, covering local politics and engaging people in the affairs relevant to their area.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55390
Social Media Challenges and Adoption Patterns among Public Relations Practitioners

Radhe Krishan
Vivekananda Institute of Professional Studies, New Delhi, India

Social media has altered the design of modern society. It has changed the way people lived and worked. Though no profession or industry is left untouched by the communication revolution stirred by social media, yet communication professionals bore maximum impact. This paper analyzed the usage and perception of public relation (PR) professionals regarding the use of social media, particularly, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.  The primary research questions, this paper attempted to find answers for, are: (i) Did social media transformed the modus operandi of PR practitioners?; (ii) Do PR practitioners rely on one social media tool/platform over the other?; and (iii) To find out whether social media is an aid or a burden for a PR practitioner? By attempting to answer these three questions the paper explored fresh aspects of social media with regards to public relations. For the purpose of the study a survey was conducted among PR practitioners based in Delhi and working with prominent multinational companies or PR agencies.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55391
Branding Unity: Impact of Advertisements
on Patriotism, Unity and Communal Harmony

Jyoti Raghavan
Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi, India

Patriotism and national unity have become favorite brand positioning propositions for advertisers in India. The paper explores the reasons behind the popularity of these patriotic themes that also embrace notions of nationhood, communal harmony and national unity in commercials and public service advertisements. While these patriotic themes used to be the exclusive domain of the government media in the country, they are being taken up in a big way by private business houses in their public communication endeavors. The research study has examined six frequently telecast advertisements on Indian television networks centered upon the theme of national pride, communal harmony and national unity. While tracing the historical context of these advertisements, the paper also attempts to study their impact upon the public. The primary research for the study comprised interviews with respondents to explore the impact of these advertisements upon the public. The findings of the study show that positioning brands on the themes of national pride, unity and patriotism succeed in establishing a strong emotional connect in public minds leading to brand recall.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55393
Communication through Advocacy Advertising
for Public Health Promotion

Mahendra Kumar Padhy
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, India

This research work is an investigation into the reception of anti-smoking advertisements that make use of “fear appeals”. The objective of the research is to bring audience perceptions, interpretations and making sense processes of such advertising campaigns to the limelight. Instead of measuring effects or effectiveness of anti-smoking messages using shocking images, this project has at its basis the assumption of an active audience that interprets, makes sense and decodes media texts in various ways. Research methods used in this study are qualitative by nature.  Research findings show that the prospective audience champion the use of anti-smoking advertisements and see the use of fear appeals as a one-way road to drawing the audience’s attention, they nevertheless perceive these communication efforts in a highly individualized manner, resisting to advertising techniques of persuasion and showing signs of desensitization towards fear appeals. Findings show that advocacy advertising using fear appeals are always decoded within the wider media context and the identity of smokers themselves often nourished by media representations of smoking, which plays an  role in the way the audience gives different interpretations and relates to these messages.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55397
Digital Access and Inequality among Primary School Children in Rural Coimbatore

Sudha Venkataswamy
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India

This paper examines the dynamics of access and exclusion in children’s Internet use, in both private and public school spaces and interrogates the role of socioeconomic and demographic predictors as well as the schooling system in shaping Internet habits. More specifically, it explores the nature of Internet use by primary school children, mainly for education and information and attempts to understand the differences across and within two types of schools- a rural public school and an elite private school. Through in-depth interviews, this research investigates the level of computer and Internet literacy among the primary school children in the age group of 8-10 years and reports the differences observed among the various social dimensions. It attempts to stress the significance and need in today’s context to provide the opportunities for physical and material access so that disadvantaged children are not excluded from the digital opportunities.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55438
Social Media and the Arab Spring

M. Rabindranath & Sujay Kapil
Central University of Himachal Pradesh, India

This paper discusses the effect of social media on the occurrence of ‘Arab Spring’. In the Arab world no country could claim to be truly democratic and most were autocratic coupled with desertification (68.4 per cent of the total land area), phenomenal rise in population and scarcity of water. Moreover, about 60 per cent of the population is under 25 years and this group belonging to lower- middle class with high education, self- constructed status, wider world views and global dreams forced them to raise their voice and change the autocratic set up. But, in the absence of effective social media since the year 2000 made it possible to raise their voice unitedly through facebook, twitter and blogs culminating to the ouster of Hosne Mubarak in Egypt. The ‘top to down’ approach adopted by the Western social scientists, thus proved wrong and ‘bottom to top’ approach through social media brought the dramatic changes in Arab nations.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55398
Constructing a Comprehensive Coverage Criterion of Indian States and Union Territories News

Umesh Arya
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, India

The study posits a twelve pronged formulation of indices to measure the over coverage and under coverage of the Indian states and union territories by newspapers on socio-economic, demographical and political aspects. Union territories (UT), mainly Delhi and Chandigarh were unjustifiably favoured on all twelve counts which clearly points out media’s biased leanings to cater to the regional aspirations and preference to the power center. Northern states were most favourably covered and the coverage reduced with increasing distance of the state from the power center i.e., the capital of India whereas north eastern states suffered severe coverage blackout. Quantitative and spatial indices were developed to see news coverage in a new perspective.

DOI: 10.15655/mw/2015/v6i1/55399
Public relations: Scope and Challenges in Digital Era

Manish Verma
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kangra, India
             
With the emergence of new media in 21st century communication industry has been revolutionized. Although digital or social media provides an advantage to reach the audience in minimum time but it is critical to draft a right message for this medium. Digital media has indeed changed the way of communication for public relation practitioners around the world. Now information is disseminated much quicker through the internet and mobile phones. In this digital era, it is imperative that public relation would need to adapt to technological advancement happening around the world and utilize this advancement as tools to effectively reach its audiences and achieve the communication objectives. To achieve public relation, it has become important for a PR practitioner to adapt to these new changes. The new technologies and methods of communication have made public relations a much more versatile and effective tool. New communication technologies allow inventive ways to accomplish a public relation campaign to build stronger association and trust between businesses and target consumers. 

Friday, 12 September 2014

Media Watch September 2014 Abstracts

Abstract: Media Watch September 2014

(Vol. 5, No. 2)

Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834

Pseudo-Events as a Mesocyclone: Rethinking Boorstin’s Concept in  the Digital Age


TIMOTHY R. GLEASON
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, USA

Daniel J. Boorstin’s concept of pseudo-events has been around almost as long as Queen Elizabeth II’s reign as monarch. 2012 was the year of the Diamond Jubilee, a 60-year anniversary, which can be viewed as a giant pseudo-event made from smaller pseudo-events. Compliant media were ready and willing to present images reinforcing the power, authority, and naturalness of the monarchy. The Diamond Jubilee, as an event and subject of analysis, exemplified the reconceptualization of pseudo-events using the analogy of a Mesocyclone. The Mesocyclone model of social media and journalism relations, developed in this study, reflects the transformation of relations between media planners, the news media, and the public. The Mesocyclone represents the challenges faced by media planners in creating, sharing, and encouraging others to participate in the process while attempting to keep the news media and public aligned with the event’s message. However, the Mesocyclone is unpredictable because social media sharing has enabled the news media and public to craft their own messages, as well as possibly change the meaning of the event. Boorstin’s concept of pseudo-events has been expanded by also considering Louis Althusser’s Ideological State Apparatus in using the Diamond Jubilee’s pro-monarchy theme as an example.

Journalistic News Framing of White Mainstream Media during the Civil Rights Movement: A Content Analysis  of the Montgomery Bus Boycott


FELICIA McGHEE
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA

Most social movements receive some type of news media coverage during the course of the movement. How the media covers a social movement and its participants is critical in the influence it plays on media consumers. This study analyzes the news framing of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. On December 5, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a white man. That act of refusal resulted in a 381-day protest of the city’s segregated bus system. This research elucidates how the boycott was framed in the local newspaper, Montgomery Advertiser. The findings of this study are crucial in understanding the complexity of past and contemporary social movements, and how social norms may influence the ensuing news coverage.

The Hegemonic Dance Partners: United States and North Korea


SKYE C. COOLEY
MARK GOODMAN
Mississippi State University

On March 31, 2014 North Korea and South Korea shot artillery shells into each country’s territorial waters. No one was injured in another incident of the 60 years of conflict on the Korean peninsula. This rather nonsensical activity of war is just another step in the hegemonic dance steps initiated by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. This paper applies the theory of hegemony to explain why the leadership of North Korea requires on-going conflict without war.



 Visual Exploration of Environmental Issues:  Photographers as Environmental Advocates


MICHELLE I. SEELIG
University of Miami, USA

Photographers of recent years document land, nature, and the environment to reveal to the public, politicians and lawmakers decay or spoiled lands, endangered cultures and wildlife, and other issues affecting the degradation of Earth’s natural resources and all its inhabitants. Different from their predecessors, contemporary photographers use all media to expose and make the public aware of wide-ranging environmental concerns. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore how photographers visually document environmental issues. Interviews and analysis of environmental and nature photographers’ websites are the primary sources for this exploratory study. Findings reveal photographers do not just document the environment, they engage in media as activism. More than words and pictures, media activism comprises a myriad of mediated content from still photos, to moving images, graphics, audio, web and mobile devices, as well as social media all in an effort to improve society.

Press and Corporate Reputation: Factors Affecting Biasness of Business News Reporting in Malaysia


LEE YUEN BENG
School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia
TAN KHOON YAN
Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia

In Malaysia, media bias has always been a hot debated issue. The ruling Barisan Nasional coalition often portrays itself as an advocate of press freedom while the masses often feel otherwise as media organisations are either directly or indirectly owned by component parties of the Barisan Nasional. Readers therefore commonly accuse these organisations of practising media control although the latter often maintains that they are free from external factors or from governmental control. Till date, researches about media biasness have only studied the effects of media biasness on corporate reputations but not about the factors associated to such biasness and are often done within Western contexts. This paper fills these gaps by examining the links between the personal interest of a journalist and their level of compliance with the National Union of Journalists’ Code of Conduct, audience pressure, political interests, and the biasness of business news reporting in Malaysia.

I am Pretty and I know It: Redefining Masculinities in The King and The Clown


SOH, WENG-KHAI
NGO, SHEAU-SHI
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

The contemporary Korean films and dramas that featuring a body of new representation of pretty boys or what are popularly known as metrosexuality have challenged the conventional association of Korean masculinity to the prevalent macho images. This article intends to focus on the soft-spoken, delicate and neat man featured in The King and the Clown (2005) by examining the cinematic figuration of such masculinity in order to reveal the underpinning ideology of capitalism within the film through the mechanism of representation. It is argued that the construction of pretty boy in this film serves to promote a non-conformative male identity and yet subjects itself to a manipulative consumerist gaze which embedding the ideological position of selling ‘prettiness’ as commodification of masculinity.

Portuguese Democracy and Patterns of Transformation in National  Newspapers: A Comparative Model Approach


HELENA LIMA
University of Porto, Portugal

The Portuguese Revolution of 1974 produced a major transformation on media property. According to the legislation approved by the revolutionary rulers during 1975, all the banks and their interests were nationalized. Almost all main tittles of national press were included in this process, because they were partial or totally owned by societies belonging to the most important financial corporations. The Portuguese state became the owner of a large media group. The analysis of main aspects like political statements, data on press production, official reports allow the identification of the media evolution in this period. This study is focused on editorial policy, management failure and professional behavior, and the relationship between governments and the press. The purpose of this article is to establish a connection between the failure of state policy and the decline of national newspapers and, by opposite, transformations that took place in the Portuguese media property during the nineties.


Media Management Trends, Techniques, and Dynamics: An Indian Experience


V. SAI SRINIVAS
Osmania University, India

Globally, Media is going through a drastic transformation. The fight for survival is leading to innovation of technologies and creativity in the fields of journalism and mass communication, and in this process many organizations are adapting newer forms of journalism. Media moguls irrespective of their age and borders are relentlessly spearheading cross media ownerships combined with convergence of media platforms, paving way for media management to be studied from a never before seen perspective. However, as media industries continue to consolidate and expand their operations beyond domestic borders, it has become all the more imperative to study and research media management with respect to trends, techniques and dynamics from a global standpoint of media consolidation, diversification, and convergence.


Social Movements and Digital Storytelling: Challenges and Prospects in India


GOVIND JI PANDEY
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, India

This research aims at analysing popularity of digital media among youth for information sharing and generating support for social movements. The user-friendly technology, the reduced cost of production of digital content, and spread of the internet in peri-urban areas have changed the sender and the receiver position dramatically. Once the receivers of the media content are now actively involved in the production and dissemination of digital content. The concept of the gatekeeper is not relevant to the new media content as most of the matter comes directly from the users. The majority of the content is uploaded to various social networking sites without interference of gatekeepers. The digital media have empowered the common man and provided them another platform to share and express their views on various issues of public interest. It seems that this forum has great potential to help in strengthening democratic movements in India by promoting multiple voices on several issues of public interest, that too, without the interference of any gatekeeper.

 

Mass Media Preference and Consumption in Rural India: A Study on Bharat Nirman Campaign


SHALINI NARAYANAN
JYOTI RANJAN SAHOO
Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi

This paper seeks to explore the media habits and preferences of rural audience in India. The study adopted purposive along with random sampling techniques to identify stakeholders in six states of the country who were targeted for the Bharat Nirman campaign conducted by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. The results indicated that television is the best medium to target rural and semi-urban audiences for public service advertising. Doordarshan’s regional channels remained one of the preferred communication medium for accessing information along with other regional channels. Newspapers and radio appeared to seriously lag behind as mass media vehicles of choice in comparison to television. The mobile telephone had made some inroads; however, it was hardly being used as a medium for accessing public service information.


Regional News Channels in India: A Study on Viewers Perspective


ATANU MOHAPATRA
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India
K G SURESH
Manav Rachna International University, India


Satellite television news network have never expanded as they have in India. In less than a decade, between 1998 and 2006, India has experienced the rise of more than 50 24-hours satellite news channels, broadcasting news in different languages. They are a prominent part of a vibrant satellite television industry, comprising more than 300 channels, that has targeted Indian homes since the early 1990s. In one form or the other, at least 106 of these broadcast daily news in 14 regional languages, and their emergence marks a sharp break with the past. They have arisen in a country where the state had monopolised broadcasting since independence, and as late as 1991, India had only one government-controlled television network. The rise of satellite television, and satellite news network, has engendered a transformation in India’s political culture, the nature of the state  and expressions of Indian nationhood.


Wednesday, 2 July 2014

Call for Papers: January 2015

Call for Papers: Journal of Media Watch January 2015
Hurricane Waves of Advertising and Public Relations in Contemporary News Media

The hurricane quest for revenue generation and profit making by the media management companies are destroying the editorial freedom and independence of the news desk. Advertisement and marketing revenues determine the editorial freedom and choices of news media. As multinational media conglomerates venture into newer and newer strategies for tapping advertisement and marketing revenue, the state funded public broadcasting is gasping and waiting for its last breath. Government in all continents are intelligently disowning and withdrawing from the public service broadcasting. BBC is the only lone voice as a hallmark. Private equities cross media ownership and shareholder’s interests are taking the mainstream media into the newer models of revenue generation through lobbying, advocacy, consultancy and public relation campaigns.
The forbidden waves of advertising and public relations are encroaching the sacred territories of news media independence and freedom. Private owned/corporate media are exploring the possibilities of surrogate to mobile advertising. Cat videos to slap stick advertisements are being experimented in between everyday news casting. Cross-media advertising, apps for niche advertising, surrogate advertising on prime time, lobbying for the advertising payments, equities instead of marketing payments, media consultancy services and campaign for private advertisers are becoming the part and parcel of modern day news media revenue generation strategies.
The January 2015 issue of the Journal of Media Watch will explore the intellectual and research expertise of academics and scholars on the above topics.
Your contributions are not limited but can explore more into:
Government and political media relations
Media relations in international communication
Citizen journalism and public relations
Political public relations and communication
Public communication campaigns
Cross-cultural public relations and soft power
Lobbying and advocacy; media access, reach and control
Corporate social responsibility and public relations
Corporate websites and reputation management
Advertising and communication in new media
News media advertising
Surrogate advertising
Paid promotional news
Ethics and corruption in media relations
Mobile and public communication campaigns
Role of public relations in society
History of public relations in specific sectors (ex.: consultancy, education, health)
Contributors are encouraged to query the editors (sonyjraj@gmail.com, mediajournal@ymail.com, mediawatchjournal@gmail.com) in a short e-mail describing their paper to determine suitability for publication. Journal of Media Watch will only accept true, original and pure fundamental and empirical research papers which were not published before in any publications.
Abstract: The abstracts should define objectives, theoretical framework and methodological approach, as well as possible contributions for the advancement of knowledge in the field. As a length measure, each submission should have an abstract of 150-200 words. Authors should provide five or six keywords for their abstract to facilitate online searching. All abstract submissions must be submitted in advance, preferably before August 15, 2014 through e-mail. Early submission is strongly encouraged.
Length: As the journal is primarily print-based, we encourage articles or manuscripts, including references, tables, and charts, should range between 20-30 pages (7000-8000 words).
Deadlines:  Once the Abstract is reviewed and if it is found suitable, you will be asked to submit a completed manuscript by September 25, 2014. Review of the papers will be completed beforeOctober 15, 2014.
Style: References should also follow APA style (6th Edition).
Visit: http://www.mediawatchglobal.com/information-for-author/
Guidelines for submission are available at:
http://www.mediawatchglobal.com/instructions-for-authors/
Title: Maximum 12 words
Review Process: Authors are informed when manuscripts are received. Each manuscript is pre-viewed prior to distribution to appropriate reviewers. Manuscripts are anonymously reviewed. Once all reviews are returned, a decision is made and the author is notified. Manuscripts should consist of original material, and not currently under consideration by other journals. Author(s) have to submit the copyrights declaration permission to Media Watch before final consideration of the paper.
Cover Page: (for review purposes): Include title of manuscript, date of submission, author’s name, title, mailing address, business and home phone number, and email address. Please provide a brief biographical sketch and acknowledge if the article was presented as a paper or if it reports a funded research project.
Software Format: Submit papers in both Word (.doc) and Pdf.
Indexing & Citations: Journal of Media Watch is indexed and citied in 15 international database, citation and indexing agencies including SCOPUS, PROQUEST, ISI, EBSCOS, Ulrich, Ebscos, J-Gate, Proquest, Google Scholar, ResearchBib, MIAR etc. Journal of Media Watch is subscribed in major university library data base in Asia, Europe and USA. Journal of Media Watch is considered for inclusion by the famous database such as ISI, Thomson Reuters, Dove Jones, and Nature.
Plagiarism Check: All the submitted papers will undergo mandatory online plagiarism check through plagiarism software’s such as Turnitin and Safe Assign. Contributors are encouraged to do plagiarism check before they submit for the publication. Any submitted paper with more than 7 % match will be rejected without any feedback from the editorial board.
Submission & Acceptance: Any paper published in any journals, book chapters, monograms or abstracts presented in any conference or published in any conference proceedings will not be published. We strongly discourage on the submission of any such.
We strongly recommend you share this call for papers among researchers who you think may be interested in submitting papers for the issue of the journal.
Information: For further information and inquiries about the proposed issue and journal, in case of need, please do not hesitate to contact the editor-in-chief of the journal, Dr. Sony Jalarajan Raj via e-mail: sonyjraj@gmail.com
If any organizations and institutions are interested to associate with Media Watch journal, please write to the Publisher: deepakranjanjena@yahoo.com, mediawatchjournal@gmail.com
Dr. Sony Jalarajan RajEditor-in-Chief, The Journal of Media Watch
St. Thomas University, Florida, USA
Email: sonyjraj@gmail.com
Tel: 001-786-204-1031
Email your submission to:

Monday, 19 May 2014

Abstract: Media Watch May 2014

Abstract: Media Watch May 2014
(Vol. 5, No. 2)
Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834

Facebook Culture: Millennial Formation of Social Identity

Hilary K. U’Ren
Portland State University, USA
               
Social Networking Sites have become a rising trend over the past decade as a source of interaction on the internet. Facebook.com, in particular, has become dangerously popular, with over 700 million active users to date. This study examines how Millennial’s use Facebook in order to regulate impression management and gain cultural capital through their virtual networks. Erving Goffman developed the concept of impression management as a method of censoring or altering the literal impression we are projecting to those around us in order to emanate a certain identity. Facebook aids this process by allowing us to actively edit exactly what we say about ourselves on a platform that is connected to everyone we know. Profiles were coded according to the nature of their About Me sections, profile photos, and count of online friends. Through simple random sampling amongst these categories of profiles, interviewees were selected. Each Millennial selected agreed to participate and was interviewed for a period of time ranging between thirty and sixty minutes. From this data, it was found that members of the Millennial generation use the site to manipulate the way they are perceived by various groups, like peers, coworkers, and parents, present on the site.

Offline Goes Online: Does the Internet Implement or Supplement our Communication and Relationships?
Kaja Tampere & Ave Tampere
Tallinn University, Estonia

This paper will be looking at the computer code-mediated communication and relationships between people. Questions, for which answers will be sought in the paper are—Does the Internet supplement or implement our communication and relationships? Supplement by filling in pieces of relationships that we would otherwise be missing out on; implement by creating or sustaining relationships that otherwise would not exist? How are relationships that were formed offline sustained online? How does the Internet change the concept of ‘long-distance’ in terms of communicating relationships? To study the topic of this paper, a literary analysis will be performed. The argument will be based on the example of Facebook. The study will focus on examples and theories covering the Western world where the research has been conducted and claims made.

Social Media and Documentary Cinema: the Arab Spring, the Wall Street Movement, Challenges and Implications for Documentary Filmmakers

Fritz Kohle
Edinburgh University, UK

Used by millions on a daily basis Web 2 and social media have become part of our lives; Facebook arguably developed into the largest online group worldwide with some 800 million users – or one seventh of the world’s population. (Facebook, 2011) This paper reviews social media and provides a general overview of the same from the perspective of an independent documentary filmmaker. The paper investigates use of social media during the Arab Spring and Wall Street Movement (Occupy, 2011) and compares social- with traditional media. Using the example of the documentary ‘God, Church, Pills & Condoms’ (F Kohle, A Cuevas, 2011) the tools social media offers are examined and their applications are discussed. Web 2 is the accumulative sum of print, radio, TV and film, offering an ever-increasing amount of content. What are the implications and challenges for Documentary filmmakers? How can documentary filmmakers explore the full potential of social media? Does social media really offer an alternative to traditional content commissioning, content development and distribution as well as fund raising? The paper concludes by examining future trends for social media and potential applications in documentary filmmaking.

Media Morality in a Postmodern Era: A Model for Ethics Restoration
in the Mass Media

Kingsley Okoro Harbor
Jacksonville State University, USA

This paper develops a chronology of milestones in mass media ethics from inception to contemporary times, demonstrating that media ethics has been on the decline throughout mass media’s history. As a response to the continual decline of ethics in the mass media, this paper proposes a model for restoring ethics to the mass media. The model has four corner stones: (i) journalism and mass communication curricular revision, (ii) student entry placement, (iii) revised training for future journalists, and (iv) journalistic de-collectivization, a term used by this author to describe the act of shielding a journalist from the impact of corporate culture in the newsroom. Essential theoretical frameworks guiding the model include Kohlberg’s moral development theory and Patterson and Wilkins’s ethical news values.

Bollywoodization of the War on Terror

Daya Thussu
University of Westminster, London, UK

In the decade since 9/11, the ‘war on terror’ has been framed in mainstream global media discourses predominantly as a conflict between medievalist Islamic terrorists and the modern West, led by the United States. In India, where the media market has grown exponentially along the lines of the US commercially led model, the media discourse has broadly followed this global trajectory. After providing an overview of terrorism in India, this article focuses on the coverage of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai on 26 November 2008, the most extensively covered terrorism story outside the Western world.  The article shows how during ‘India’s 9/11,’ media and communication technologies intersected to create a tele-visual spectacle, in a fiercely competitive media market, one increasingly shaped by an infotainment-driven news culture. Such ‘Bollywoodization’ of the ‘war on terror,’ the article suggests, contributes to presenting grim realities of political conflicts as a feast of visually arresting, emotionally-charged entertainment – genres skilfully borrowed from India’s bourgeoning film industry, to sustain ratings.

Political Economy of Corporate Power and Free Speech
in the United States

Jeffrey Layne Blevins
University of Cincinnati, USA

This political economic analysis of U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence broadly examines corporate speech rights in campaigns and elections, in commercial speech, and in conflicts between speech and privacy.  From this examination, it appears that corporate wealth has expressed its dominance within communication space, which was once the primary domain of human liberty.  Moreover, the analysis demonstrates the ‘historical amnesia’ expressed within the Supreme Court about the revolutionary potential of electronic media, as corporate encroachment of communication space is diminishing the value of human speech under the law.

Journalism Ethics: The Uneven Tempo between
International Principles and Local Practice

Kiranjit Kaur & Halimahton Shaari
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia

Media codes of ethics comprise principles of ethics and good practice.  Though media codes may vary from country to country, the global media and communication profession is guided by principles that share many common values for the simple reason that many social and individual values are universal.  In the journalism profession, as an example, ethical practice would almost always revolve around universal values like accuracy, honesty, truth, objectivity and freedom. Though the Malaysian media adopt and practise many international principles, media practitioners have also to take cognizance of the socio-political sensitivities and sensibilities that shape and influence the workings and contents of the media. Qualitative interviews with media practitioners provide insights into how values and principles, both local and international, either go in tandem or clash and impact on media practices. This paper also studies the practicality and applicability of media codes in the face of rapidly-changing media values, contents and technology.  The media occasionally violate ethical boundaries; however these are sometimes not perceived as digressions by media practitioners as media values and roles undergo a facelift.
Press Coverage of Post Tamil Eelam War in Dinamani
C. J. Ravi Krishnan, C. Pichandy & Francis Barclay
PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, India

The war for Tamil Eelam and the last battle at northern region of Sri Lanka between the government and LTTE has been seriously viewed and reported by media around the world. However ‘Eelam’ is an issue close to the heart of the Tamils in the world. The present study has chosen the post-war period for two years  from January 2009 to January 2011 to find out how the Tamil print media in Tamil Nadu reacted to the end of the LTTE regime in Sri Lankan northern province and the sentiments of the Tamil population. Editorials and columns of Tamil daily, Dinamani considered for the study. The study revealed that editorials and columns published during that time exposed violations of human rights by Sri Lankan government. The study also found the role played by the Indian and Tamil Nadu government during and after the war period were not satisfactory in the context of dealing the Sri Lankan Tamilian issues. 

Media Effects of Assam State Assembly Elections 2011
Kh. Kabi
Rajiv Gandhi University, India.
Anupa Lahkar
Assam Don Bosco University, India

Election is one of the most significant exercises particularly in a democracy, wherein citizens participate to elect their representative. For the first time in the history of Assam (Northeast India) State Assembly Election, campaign was carried out in the presence of wide media coverage. This study focuses on the impact of media’s coverage of the election campaigns during the last Assam state assembly election held in 2011.  It examined the role of media in setting the agenda of important election issues and its impact on the opinion of the people. Attempts have been made to find out the effects of political campaign on the potential voters in view of their political opinion formation and their decision to participate and vote for a particular party or candidate. The study revealed that majority of them has been impacted by the media coverage to some extent and it has aroused them to participate and vote. However when it came to their voting behavior, it is their personal choice and reasons that matter and not necessarily due to media’s campaign. 

Cross-Media Ownership: Would It be Really Curbed?

Shivaji Sarkar

India has been debating the issue of cross-media ownership for the last over 60 years. It is not that it is being raised by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) at the behest of the ministry of information and broadcasting for the first time. In fact, TRAI in its paper expresses limitation on checkmating cross-media ownership. Rather softly it has given it up. TRAI chairman Rahul Khullar said the regulator would, with the help of the Competition Commission of India, attempt to ensure that there are a minimum number of mergers and acquisitions. A consultation paper will spell out restrictions, make mandatory disclosure requirements, spell out levels of market share which will ensure plurality and diversity, list general disqualifications, recommend how cross media ownership can be dealt with, set rules for disaggregated markets, and ensure minimum mergers and acquisitions.

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