Monday, 19 May 2014
Abstract: Media Watch May 2014
(Vol. 5, No. 2)
Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834
Facebook Culture: Millennial Formation of Social Identity
Hilary K. U’Ren
Portland State University, USA
Social Networking Sites have become a rising trend over the past decade as a source of interaction on the internet. Facebook.com, in particular, has become dangerously popular, with over 700 million active users to date. This study examines how Millennial’s use Facebook in order to regulate impression management and gain cultural capital through their virtual networks. Erving Goffman developed the concept of impression management as a method of censoring or altering the literal impression we are projecting to those around us in order to emanate a certain identity. Facebook aids this process by allowing us to actively edit exactly what we say about ourselves on a platform that is connected to everyone we know. Profiles were coded according to the nature of their About Me sections, profile photos, and count of online friends. Through simple random sampling amongst these categories of profiles, interviewees were selected. Each Millennial selected agreed to participate and was interviewed for a period of time ranging between thirty and sixty minutes. From this data, it was found that members of the Millennial generation use the site to manipulate the way they are perceived by various groups, like peers, coworkers, and parents, present on the site.
Offline Goes Online: Does the Internet Implement or Supplement our Communication and Relationships?
Kaja Tampere & Ave Tampere
Tallinn University, Estonia
This paper will be looking at the computer code-mediated communication and relationships between people. Questions, for which answers will be sought in the paper are—Does the Internet supplement or implement our communication and relationships? Supplement by filling in pieces of relationships that we would otherwise be missing out on; implement by creating or sustaining relationships that otherwise would not exist? How are relationships that were formed offline sustained online? How does the Internet change the concept of ‘long-distance’ in terms of communicating relationships? To study the topic of this paper, a literary analysis will be performed. The argument will be based on the example of Facebook. The study will focus on examples and theories covering the Western world where the research has been conducted and claims made.
Social Media and Documentary Cinema: the Arab Spring, the Wall Street Movement, Challenges and Implications for Documentary Filmmakers
Edinburgh University, UK
Edinburgh University, UK
Used by millions on a daily basis Web 2 and social media have become part of our lives; Facebook arguably developed into the largest online group worldwide with some 800 million users – or one seventh of the world’s population. (Facebook, 2011) This paper reviews social media and provides a general overview of the same from the perspective of an independent documentary filmmaker. The paper investigates use of social media during the Arab Spring and Wall Street Movement (Occupy, 2011) and compares social- with traditional media. Using the example of the documentary ‘God, Church, Pills & Condoms’ (F Kohle, A Cuevas, 2011) the tools social media offers are examined and their applications are discussed. Web 2 is the accumulative sum of print, radio, TV and film, offering an ever-increasing amount of content. What are the implications and challenges for Documentary filmmakers? How can documentary filmmakers explore the full potential of social media? Does social media really offer an alternative to traditional content commissioning, content development and distribution as well as fund raising? The paper concludes by examining future trends for social media and potential applications in documentary filmmaking.
Media Morality in a Postmodern Era: A Model for Ethics Restoration
in the Mass Media
Kingsley Okoro Harbor
Jacksonville State University, USA
This paper develops a chronology of milestones in mass media ethics from inception to contemporary times, demonstrating that media ethics has been on the decline throughout mass media’s history. As a response to the continual decline of ethics in the mass media, this paper proposes a model for restoring ethics to the mass media. The model has four corner stones: (i) journalism and mass communication curricular revision, (ii) student entry placement, (iii) revised training for future journalists, and (iv) journalistic de-collectivization, a term used by this author to describe the act of shielding a journalist from the impact of corporate culture in the newsroom. Essential theoretical frameworks guiding the model include Kohlberg’s moral development theory and Patterson and Wilkins’s ethical news values.
Bollywoodization of the War on Terror
University of Westminster, London, UK
University of Westminster, London, UK
In the decade since 9/11, the ‘war on terror’ has been framed in mainstream global media discourses predominantly as a conflict between medievalist Islamic terrorists and the modern West, led by the United States. In India, where the media market has grown exponentially along the lines of the US commercially led model, the media discourse has broadly followed this global trajectory. After providing an overview of terrorism in India, this article focuses on the coverage of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai on 26 November 2008, the most extensively covered terrorism story outside the Western world. The article shows how during ‘India’s 9/11,’ media and communication technologies intersected to create a tele-visual spectacle, in a fiercely competitive media market, one increasingly shaped by an infotainment-driven news culture. Such ‘Bollywoodization’ of the ‘war on terror,’ the article suggests, contributes to presenting grim realities of political conflicts as a feast of visually arresting, emotionally-charged entertainment – genres skilfully borrowed from India’s bourgeoning film industry, to sustain ratings.
Political Economy of Corporate Power and Free Speech
in the United States
Jeffrey Layne Blevins
University of Cincinnati, USA
This political economic analysis of U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence broadly examines corporate speech rights in campaigns and elections, in commercial speech, and in conflicts between speech and privacy. From this examination, it appears that corporate wealth has expressed its dominance within communication space, which was once the primary domain of human liberty. Moreover, the analysis demonstrates the ‘historical amnesia’ expressed within the Supreme Court about the revolutionary potential of electronic media, as corporate encroachment of communication space is diminishing the value of human speech under the law.
Journalism Ethics: The Uneven Tempo between
International Principles and Local Practice
Kiranjit Kaur & Halimahton Shaari
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
Media codes of ethics comprise principles of ethics and good practice. Though media codes may vary from country to country, the global media and communication profession is guided by principles that share many common values for the simple reason that many social and individual values are universal. In the journalism profession, as an example, ethical practice would almost always revolve around universal values like accuracy, honesty, truth, objectivity and freedom. Though the Malaysian media adopt and practise many international principles, media practitioners have also to take cognizance of the socio-political sensitivities and sensibilities that shape and influence the workings and contents of the media. Qualitative interviews with media practitioners provide insights into how values and principles, both local and international, either go in tandem or clash and impact on media practices. This paper also studies the practicality and applicability of media codes in the face of rapidly-changing media values, contents and technology. The media occasionally violate ethical boundaries; however these are sometimes not perceived as digressions by media practitioners as media values and roles undergo a facelift.
Press Coverage of Post Tamil Eelam War in Dinamani
C. J. Ravi Krishnan, C. Pichandy & Francis Barclay
PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, India
PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, India
The war for Tamil Eelam and the last battle at northern region of Sri Lanka between the government and LTTE has been seriously viewed and reported by media around the world. However ‘Eelam’ is an issue close to the heart of the Tamils in the world. The present study has chosen the post-war period for two years from January 2009 to January 2011 to find out how the Tamil print media in Tamil Nadu reacted to the end of the LTTE regime in Sri Lankan northern province and the sentiments of the Tamil population. Editorials and columns of Tamil daily, Dinamani considered for the study. The study revealed that editorials and columns published during that time exposed violations of human rights by Sri Lankan government. The study also found the role played by the Indian and Tamil Nadu government during and after the war period were not satisfactory in the context of dealing the Sri Lankan Tamilian issues.
Media Effects of Assam State Assembly Elections 2011
Rajiv Gandhi University, India.
Assam Don Bosco University, India
Rajiv Gandhi University, India.
Assam Don Bosco University, India
Election is one of the most significant exercises particularly in a democracy, wherein citizens participate to elect their representative. For the first time in the history of Assam (Northeast India) State Assembly Election, campaign was carried out in the presence of wide media coverage. This study focuses on the impact of media’s coverage of the election campaigns during the last Assam state assembly election held in 2011. It examined the role of media in setting the agenda of important election issues and its impact on the opinion of the people. Attempts have been made to find out the effects of political campaign on the potential voters in view of their political opinion formation and their decision to participate and vote for a particular party or candidate. The study revealed that majority of them has been impacted by the media coverage to some extent and it has aroused them to participate and vote. However when it came to their voting behavior, it is their personal choice and reasons that matter and not necessarily due to media’s campaign.
Cross-Media Ownership: Would It be Really Curbed?
India has been debating the issue of cross-media ownership for the last over 60 years. It is not that it is being raised by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) at the behest of the ministry of information and broadcasting for the first time. In fact, TRAI in its paper expresses limitation on checkmating cross-media ownership. Rather softly it has given it up. TRAI chairman Rahul Khullar said the regulator would, with the help of the Competition Commission of India, attempt to ensure that there are a minimum number of mergers and acquisitions. A consultation paper will spell out restrictions, make mandatory disclosure requirements, spell out levels of market share which will ensure plurality and diversity, list general disqualifications, recommend how cross media ownership can be dealt with, set rules for disaggregated markets, and ensure minimum mergers and acquisitions.
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Saturday, 18 January 2014
Abstract of Articles in January 2014 Issue
Visual Proof: Identifying a Pattern in Photographic Coverage of a Social Movement
Michael B. Friedman
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA
This study compared the photographic news coverage of the Occupy Wall Street protests from two competing New York City tabloid newspapers on opposite sides of the political spectrum, the New York Post (conservative) and the Daily News (liberal). The purpose of the study was to determine if there were any differences in the photographic coverage of the Occupy Wall Street protests between the two media outlets. A content analysis was conducted to detect and confirm any statistically significant differences in photographic coverage. Results showed that the differences in photographic coverage were significantly different suggesting that each media outlet may have presented the photographs to express a specific opinion of the protests. The study also determined that social proof is a useful theory for detecting a pattern of selection in photographic coverage of a social movement.
Articulations of Gender Ideology: A Discourse Analysis of Online Public Comments on the Delhi Gang-Rape on Firstpost.Com
Symbiosis Institute of Media & Communication, Pune, India
On December 16, 2012, a 23 year-old girl was brutally gang-raped by six men, including one minor, on a moving bus while her male friend was assaulted in Delhi. Both of the victims were attacked with an iron rod and the girl was severely injured and later died. The media was quick to hype cringe-worthy comments made by people in the limelight. The discourse around status of women in the society, patriarchal norms, gender sensitivity and umpteen related constructs became the content of comment threads on various web pages. The articulation of these discourses on a digital medium is both conflicting and intriguing. This paper will attempt to conduct the discourse analysis of the comment threads on few websites that posted updates around this mishap. Since the online medium gives people the advantage of anonymity which may not otherwise be available to them in the public sphere, the constructs of identity and ideology become even more critical. This research paper will attempt to identify the dominant discourses, analyse their ideological context and the potential and the role of digital media in these constructions. Does the digital media ecosystem reinforce the hegemonic ideologies or does it provide the space for liberal and alternative ideologies? Do perceptions of gender and sexuality assume fluid meanings or get re-negotiated in the digital media context? This research will attempt to use the discourse analysis of the web comment threads around the brutal mishap to discuss and analyse these questions.
Connect to Conspire: Scope of Social Media in Gorkhaland Statehood Movement
All India Women’s Conference, Darjeeling, India
The recent ‘Gorkhaland movement’ offered a story in contrast to the previous movement of the mid-eighties which had lasted for over 22 months and had resulted in the death of over 1,200 people. This time it lasted for slightly over a month and highlighted by the death of a youth who immolated himself in a busy public square. Both were fired by the imagination of a people in their ideological “search for identity.” But how were the two different? Social media played a big role and Facebook, Twitter and other blogspots became war zones where battles were fought and enemies vanquished. An interesting form of communication in which people voiced dissent by locking themselves up inside homes in the Ghaar Bhitra Junta movement was seen. Leaders made use of the social media at a time when the administration had shut down the broadcast of the local channels. It makes a good study in mob-mobilisation and cyber-psychology. Twenty-seven years ago, during the previous movement when internet was unheard of, people had resorted to ingenious means of communication. This paper will try to bring forth the contrast and the changes that new Information and Communication Technologies have brought in social movements.
The ‘Rise of the Rest’: Schumpeter’s Theory of Creative Destruction in the Age of Digital Media
Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
The advent of ICT brought about a process of industrial mutation that, clubbed with the recent economic turmoil, has seen markets, businesses and managements focus on mobility, ubiquity and entrepreneurial innovation as survival strategies. This paper analyses the fall of the media moghuls against the rise of the twitteratti; it argues that we are at the edge of a blast wave of consumer-driven change, one that is tight on performance but loose on tactics; it focuses on the paradox of digital convergence on the one hand and content diversity on the other. How can we best define the role of mediated communication in its multiple technological avatars? Is it becoming a God of Small Things, particularly where social justice is concerned? Or is it just another instance of cultural imperialism? Is it confirming or challenging the public service orientation of the media? Is it creating tipping points that shift relationships among social, financial, and political systems? Or is it becoming a Tower of Babel in the name of alternative voices and discourses? – are the other specifics addressed. Given the global interconnectedness of media today, the paper primarily seeks to take Schumpeter’s theory of Creative Destruction out of the purview of economics alone and link it to the larger issue of change as the new constant for our next evolutionary leap– as cyborgs.
Technology Synergy Eco-System between HD Video DSLR and New Social Media Platform
Gary Chong Khin Jin & N V Prasad
School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia
This paper will engage with the concept of a ‘technology synergy eco-system’ which blends together the two core elements of HD video DSLR and the new social media platform to determine, if this could actually be a potent formula for the emergence of a potential alternative virtual cinema. This alternative virtual cinema has both connotations as a medium of transmission of a certain film to the masses and also elements of film techniques in terms of aesthetics and etc. It is beyond a shadow of a doubt that in this current day and age, we can see that the social new media has impacted practically every facet of society. The question beckons then, what about cinema? Does the level of interactivity in which the social new media provides, combined with the affordability and ease of using a HD video DSLR to produce videos with high production values and cinematic quality nuances serve as a precursor to the trends and patterns which might lead up to an alternative virtual cinema? With these exciting questions in mind, it is of great interest to us as modern day filmmakers, in exploring and giving an exposition into this subject matter, to deconstruct the elements and see if the possibility is viable or merely an idealistic notion.
Culture and Globalisation: The Indian Creative Industries
Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad, India
The processes of globalization have stirred different cultural practices resulting in cultural homogenization where local cultures are merged into a single macro cultural domain. This macro cultural domain is a result of the fusion of different cultures that have given the local cultures a new order and form. Here the local cultures seem to have lost their own identity and representation. Furthermore, due to the ambiguous nature of the global cultural flow other cultures that are in local or national form have sought to find their space among the chaos of global culture. Similar effects have been felt in the creative industries due to the proliferation of globalization further causing an air of change in the creative content and production. Hence, this conceptual study will look into two cases of Bollywood cinema and Indian rock music both facing an ongoing tension related to content creating ambiguity and imbalance, among its (content) creators and audiences.
Escape and Re-Colonization of Waka Waka: Shakira’s Performance at the 2010 World Cup
MARK GOODMAN & DANAE CARLSON
Mississippi State University, USA
Mississippi State University, USA
In 2010, Waka Waka was chosen as the anthem for the FIFA World Cup held in South Africa, and Shakira, a well known vocal artist, was appointed the task of performing. The lyrics of the song present a message of world unity. But, a semiotic reading of the official video presents a different interpretation. This paper examines the conflicts between Waka Waka’s lyrics and its cinematography, while delving deeper into its underlying colonialism.
Role of Wikis in School Education
Indian Institute of Management, Indore, India
The main agenda of this paper is to provide a review of literature on the role of Web 2.0 or social software tools particularly wikis in school education because it is an under-researched area. Though it is a versatile tool to leverage the information in multimodal environment, including video, sound, animation, as well as, static text and image it has not been actively used in the context of school education especially in the Indian context. Today’s educators are hesitant in using the web 2.0 technology because they feel overwhelmed by the range of choices it offers. The paper tries to evolve framework that can be employed to use wikis. It examines the issues that have surfaced from the review especially those that affect pedagogy due to adoption of web 2.0 technologies. The advantages of wikis to students, educators and institutions as well as the challenges that accompany such initiative and the host of problems that need to be addressed in using wikis in school education is enumerated. This paper incorporates the analysis out of the review and highlights the different pedagogical roles of web2.0 technologies with reference to communication, innovation, and collaborative learning and challenging the imagination of children. The analysis answers the concerns of academicians about the inclusion of web 2.0 technologies and the findings can influence learning and teaching strategies in various echelons of education. The paper integrates the perspective by consolidating a variety of literature sources from academic publications, recent Newspaper and magazine reports on social network sites and commentaries and views on social media itself. A major limitation of this paper is lack of empirical evidences in the Indian context for rigorous analysis and does not analyse the reason for this paradoxical situation.
Revisiting the Contours of Media Education: A Study in the Indian Context
Kapil Kumar Bhattacharya
Centre for Journalism & Mass Communication, Visva-Bharati, India
Media education should not be merely about making media professionals. It should rather be about enlightening the citizens. The problem lies in the basic approach to media education which is essentially considered to be a vocational course. This approach in itself results in segmentation of the students from the very beginning. While all students of political Science do not end up becoming politicians and all students of Sociology do not end up becoming sociologists, Media Education, unfortunately, is essentially projected as a subject whose primary focus is upon producing media professionals. However, just as the primary focus of teaching political Science and Sociology is creating political and social sensibility, the primary focus of teaching media education should be creating media sensibility/ awareness among the youth of the nation as the media has emerged as a force to reckon with in today’s scenario. Thus, they need to be aware of the powers and functions of the media so that they may judge the stance taken by the media in regional, national and even the international affairs. This paper shall strive to throw some light upon such issues through both theoretical and practical approaches such as content analysis and surveys.
Cultural Diversity in Television Advertisements in Entertainment Channels
University of Mumbai, India
Social attitudes towards multiculturalism can be checked by measuring representations of ethnicity in television advertisements. The current research conducts a quantitative content analysis of television commercials. The researcher first recorded the frequency of representation of characters from varied culturally diverse backgrounds in television advertisements and then examined the nature of role portrayals on the basis of religion and skin tone of the characters. The sampling technique used is purposive wherein advertisements broadcasted during prime time of two leading entertainment channel—Star Plus and Colors were recorded and analysed. The criteria for selection of units of analysis in ads was that all the characters selected had at least one line of dialog or they appeared on screen for at least five seconds.
The Dialectical Cinema of Tomas Gutierrez Alea: Insights for Indian Cinema
One cannot hope to create meaningful popular dialectical cinema by accusing mainstream cinema of being vacuous, of having sold out to the lowest denominator, or of functioning as a narcotic for the masses. Neither can opposing mass aesthetics or desire for delusion swing the other extreme where ‘meaningful’ cinema gains only from its purported opposition to mass-cinema, forcing the viewer into a discussion he might be resistant to. Lastly, a medium of mass consumption cannot be successfully co-opted under the program of ‘instruction’ alone. I believe traditional methods of trying to qualify cinema by framing it within an oppositional paradigm of form and content are absurd, as they are both intertwined. The journey from mass amusement to mass instruction or of belonging to a niche group is doomed from the beginning. Rather than trapping the viewer into a debate, cinema can explore its potential better by drawing him into a contemplation and discussion about the film, in other words, making him a more participative, meaning-making entity.
Tuesday, 10 December 2013
Trendy transitions and turbulent times in the Media Spectrum
The Journalism and Mass Communication spectrum is undergoing a swift yet strategic metamorphosis. Amidst the growing number of media companies fighting for existence, the mediated world is on a mad rush for new operating systems and apps. The role and responsibility of the journalists are being redefined in the increasing digitalization and the influx of media companies. Technological up-gradations and e-revolutions put forth a challenging as well as a convenient avenue for the mass communicators. The Broadcasting companies now encourage the audience to send and share pictures through Instagram and progressively support the citizen video on their websites and news reporting. CNN started the move now followed by all the major players.BBC is undergoing massive restructuring and digitalization on its famous headquarters to its reporting outlets in order to face the growing challenges of social media turned community based news disseminators. Fox news is compelled to redefine its political manipulative and business gimmicks.
Social-networking sites are ruling the process of news dissemination and discourse initiation accelerating a novel way of participation. 140 characters revolutionize the news world- Twitter gone public issue with the much hyped and celebrated stock exchange listing. Fight for survival and success continues in the social world with Snap Chat, the latest image-sharing application through mobile apps boldly rejected the 3 billion takeover offers from Facebook.
Themedia management sector is not devoid of vicissitudes and revolution. Millionaires are increasingly turning their attention to media companies that in turn redefine the objectives of the firm - one of the contemporaries include the millionaire Gina Rinehart, the mining heiress in Australia who have a significant stake holdings in the media companies. Gina’s predatory buy out of newspapers and news media against carbon tax is continuing. Those under her ownership are facing the cannibalistic future. Media moguls continue to expand their horizon through crossovers and mergers - Ted Turner turned 75, still have a successive career in the news world with more and more ventures in his bouquet. Merging and acquisition theories of media world are still a puzzle with this theory.
Jeff Boze the online Amazon retailers grabbed the celebrated Washington Post through a dream bidding. Jeff declared and demonstrated unmanned drones for newspaper distribution. His Amazon stuck the deal with India Post for speedy and efficient delivery system of all value added news goods. Newsweek and Forbes magazines are once again for sale. Blumberg Business world surviving with push and pull. Wall Street Journal lost its identity by the Murdochian renaissance. Neither a broadsheet nor a tabloid any more but to a snippet format for easy-go-readers. Rebekah Brooks, his trusted adopted daughter is facing serious legal trial on intrusion into privacy and telephone hacking for news sensationalism.
Media is the Middle East is celebrating their liberation due to the much celebrated and squandered world cup football to happen in the green oasis. They are going global by quality printing not by content. The jasmine revolution from the Arab spring through social media is yet to bloom in the social life. Guardian and Edward Snowden leakage is still making the trouble in the British parliament. The most respected editor of guardian Alan Rusbridger, was summoned to testify in front of the British Parliament committee about his paper’s reporting on the leaks.
On a contrary to all the developments human resources in media force have been faced with grave challenges and criticisms in the recent days leading to anapprehension on ethics and morality in the media field.To quote some -Tarun Tejpal to Rupert Murdoch is under the legal tentacles and public hatred; the Maha Vishnu on Mount Road,The Hindu,is back again in the hands of family kitchen business. Debt ridden Time Inc. filed for a public issue, expecting angel investors to revive it. Slate, Salon, Democracy Now, GigaMedia, News Laundry are still popular with the news teasers. Times of India style of ‘presstitution’ for stake hold on advertisers are still thriving like a monolith in the Indian media scenario.
Considering all the recent changes occurring in the mass communication and journalism field, this issue of Media Watch focuses on a wider area of communication not limiting to specific themes and subjects.The topic includes, but not limited to,
Theoretical issues in media/communication field (Television, Print, Web, and Film)
Journalism and Journalists – changing concepts& practices
Media management – trends techniques and dynamics
News media – Politics, Policies and regulations
Communication - Moral issues and ethical concerns
Citizen journalism – challenges, prospects and diversions
Technologies – Process and products
Web journalism- data journalism to apps
Social Media - networking sites and news opportunities
Convergent Media – access and reach opportunities
Film studies- New wave and New Generations
Last date for the final submission of the completed papers
February 28th, 2014.
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Dr. Sony Jalarajan Raj
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St. Thomas University, Florida, USA