Friday, 12 September 2014

Media Watch September 2014 Abstracts

Abstract: Media Watch September 2014

(Vol. 5, No. 2)

Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834

Pseudo-Events as a Mesocyclone: Rethinking Boorstin’s Concept in  the Digital Age

University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, USA

Daniel J. Boorstin’s concept of pseudo-events has been around almost as long as Queen Elizabeth II’s reign as monarch. 2012 was the year of the Diamond Jubilee, a 60-year anniversary, which can be viewed as a giant pseudo-event made from smaller pseudo-events. Compliant media were ready and willing to present images reinforcing the power, authority, and naturalness of the monarchy. The Diamond Jubilee, as an event and subject of analysis, exemplified the reconceptualization of pseudo-events using the analogy of a Mesocyclone. The Mesocyclone model of social media and journalism relations, developed in this study, reflects the transformation of relations between media planners, the news media, and the public. The Mesocyclone represents the challenges faced by media planners in creating, sharing, and encouraging others to participate in the process while attempting to keep the news media and public aligned with the event’s message. However, the Mesocyclone is unpredictable because social media sharing has enabled the news media and public to craft their own messages, as well as possibly change the meaning of the event. Boorstin’s concept of pseudo-events has been expanded by also considering Louis Althusser’s Ideological State Apparatus in using the Diamond Jubilee’s pro-monarchy theme as an example.

Journalistic News Framing of White Mainstream Media during the Civil Rights Movement: A Content Analysis  of the Montgomery Bus Boycott

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA

Most social movements receive some type of news media coverage during the course of the movement. How the media covers a social movement and its participants is critical in the influence it plays on media consumers. This study analyzes the news framing of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. On December 5, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a white man. That act of refusal resulted in a 381-day protest of the city’s segregated bus system. This research elucidates how the boycott was framed in the local newspaper, Montgomery Advertiser. The findings of this study are crucial in understanding the complexity of past and contemporary social movements, and how social norms may influence the ensuing news coverage.

The Hegemonic Dance Partners: United States and North Korea

Mississippi State University

On March 31, 2014 North Korea and South Korea shot artillery shells into each country’s territorial waters. No one was injured in another incident of the 60 years of conflict on the Korean peninsula. This rather nonsensical activity of war is just another step in the hegemonic dance steps initiated by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. This paper applies the theory of hegemony to explain why the leadership of North Korea requires on-going conflict without war.

 Visual Exploration of Environmental Issues:  Photographers as Environmental Advocates

University of Miami, USA

Photographers of recent years document land, nature, and the environment to reveal to the public, politicians and lawmakers decay or spoiled lands, endangered cultures and wildlife, and other issues affecting the degradation of Earth’s natural resources and all its inhabitants. Different from their predecessors, contemporary photographers use all media to expose and make the public aware of wide-ranging environmental concerns. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore how photographers visually document environmental issues. Interviews and analysis of environmental and nature photographers’ websites are the primary sources for this exploratory study. Findings reveal photographers do not just document the environment, they engage in media as activism. More than words and pictures, media activism comprises a myriad of mediated content from still photos, to moving images, graphics, audio, web and mobile devices, as well as social media all in an effort to improve society.

Press and Corporate Reputation: Factors Affecting Biasness of Business News Reporting in Malaysia

School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia

In Malaysia, media bias has always been a hot debated issue. The ruling Barisan Nasional coalition often portrays itself as an advocate of press freedom while the masses often feel otherwise as media organisations are either directly or indirectly owned by component parties of the Barisan Nasional. Readers therefore commonly accuse these organisations of practising media control although the latter often maintains that they are free from external factors or from governmental control. Till date, researches about media biasness have only studied the effects of media biasness on corporate reputations but not about the factors associated to such biasness and are often done within Western contexts. This paper fills these gaps by examining the links between the personal interest of a journalist and their level of compliance with the National Union of Journalists’ Code of Conduct, audience pressure, political interests, and the biasness of business news reporting in Malaysia.

I am Pretty and I know It: Redefining Masculinities in The King and The Clown

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

The contemporary Korean films and dramas that featuring a body of new representation of pretty boys or what are popularly known as metrosexuality have challenged the conventional association of Korean masculinity to the prevalent macho images. This article intends to focus on the soft-spoken, delicate and neat man featured in The King and the Clown (2005) by examining the cinematic figuration of such masculinity in order to reveal the underpinning ideology of capitalism within the film through the mechanism of representation. It is argued that the construction of pretty boy in this film serves to promote a non-conformative male identity and yet subjects itself to a manipulative consumerist gaze which embedding the ideological position of selling ‘prettiness’ as commodification of masculinity.

Portuguese Democracy and Patterns of Transformation in National  Newspapers: A Comparative Model Approach

University of Porto, Portugal

The Portuguese Revolution of 1974 produced a major transformation on media property. According to the legislation approved by the revolutionary rulers during 1975, all the banks and their interests were nationalized. Almost all main tittles of national press were included in this process, because they were partial or totally owned by societies belonging to the most important financial corporations. The Portuguese state became the owner of a large media group. The analysis of main aspects like political statements, data on press production, official reports allow the identification of the media evolution in this period. This study is focused on editorial policy, management failure and professional behavior, and the relationship between governments and the press. The purpose of this article is to establish a connection between the failure of state policy and the decline of national newspapers and, by opposite, transformations that took place in the Portuguese media property during the nineties.

Media Management Trends, Techniques, and Dynamics: An Indian Experience

Osmania University, India

Globally, Media is going through a drastic transformation. The fight for survival is leading to innovation of technologies and creativity in the fields of journalism and mass communication, and in this process many organizations are adapting newer forms of journalism. Media moguls irrespective of their age and borders are relentlessly spearheading cross media ownerships combined with convergence of media platforms, paving way for media management to be studied from a never before seen perspective. However, as media industries continue to consolidate and expand their operations beyond domestic borders, it has become all the more imperative to study and research media management with respect to trends, techniques and dynamics from a global standpoint of media consolidation, diversification, and convergence.

Social Movements and Digital Storytelling: Challenges and Prospects in India

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, India

This research aims at analysing popularity of digital media among youth for information sharing and generating support for social movements. The user-friendly technology, the reduced cost of production of digital content, and spread of the internet in peri-urban areas have changed the sender and the receiver position dramatically. Once the receivers of the media content are now actively involved in the production and dissemination of digital content. The concept of the gatekeeper is not relevant to the new media content as most of the matter comes directly from the users. The majority of the content is uploaded to various social networking sites without interference of gatekeepers. The digital media have empowered the common man and provided them another platform to share and express their views on various issues of public interest. It seems that this forum has great potential to help in strengthening democratic movements in India by promoting multiple voices on several issues of public interest, that too, without the interference of any gatekeeper.


Mass Media Preference and Consumption in Rural India: A Study on Bharat Nirman Campaign

Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi

This paper seeks to explore the media habits and preferences of rural audience in India. The study adopted purposive along with random sampling techniques to identify stakeholders in six states of the country who were targeted for the Bharat Nirman campaign conducted by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. The results indicated that television is the best medium to target rural and semi-urban audiences for public service advertising. Doordarshan’s regional channels remained one of the preferred communication medium for accessing information along with other regional channels. Newspapers and radio appeared to seriously lag behind as mass media vehicles of choice in comparison to television. The mobile telephone had made some inroads; however, it was hardly being used as a medium for accessing public service information.

Regional News Channels in India: A Study on Viewers Perspective

Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India
Manav Rachna International University, India

Satellite television news network have never expanded as they have in India. In less than a decade, between 1998 and 2006, India has experienced the rise of more than 50 24-hours satellite news channels, broadcasting news in different languages. They are a prominent part of a vibrant satellite television industry, comprising more than 300 channels, that has targeted Indian homes since the early 1990s. In one form or the other, at least 106 of these broadcast daily news in 14 regional languages, and their emergence marks a sharp break with the past. They have arisen in a country where the state had monopolised broadcasting since independence, and as late as 1991, India had only one government-controlled television network. The rise of satellite television, and satellite news network, has engendered a transformation in India’s political culture, the nature of the state  and expressions of Indian nationhood.

Wednesday, 2 July 2014

Call for Papers: January 2015

Call for Papers: Journal of Media Watch January 2015
Hurricane Waves of Advertising and Public Relations in Contemporary News Media

The hurricane quest for revenue generation and profit making by the media management companies are destroying the editorial freedom and independence of the news desk. Advertisement and marketing revenues determine the editorial freedom and choices of news media. As multinational media conglomerates venture into newer and newer strategies for tapping advertisement and marketing revenue, the state funded public broadcasting is gasping and waiting for its last breath. Government in all continents are intelligently disowning and withdrawing from the public service broadcasting. BBC is the only lone voice as a hallmark. Private equities cross media ownership and shareholder’s interests are taking the mainstream media into the newer models of revenue generation through lobbying, advocacy, consultancy and public relation campaigns.
The forbidden waves of advertising and public relations are encroaching the sacred territories of news media independence and freedom. Private owned/corporate media are exploring the possibilities of surrogate to mobile advertising. Cat videos to slap stick advertisements are being experimented in between everyday news casting. Cross-media advertising, apps for niche advertising, surrogate advertising on prime time, lobbying for the advertising payments, equities instead of marketing payments, media consultancy services and campaign for private advertisers are becoming the part and parcel of modern day news media revenue generation strategies.
The January 2015 issue of the Journal of Media Watch will explore the intellectual and research expertise of academics and scholars on the above topics.
Your contributions are not limited but can explore more into:
Government and political media relations
Media relations in international communication
Citizen journalism and public relations
Political public relations and communication
Public communication campaigns
Cross-cultural public relations and soft power
Lobbying and advocacy; media access, reach and control
Corporate social responsibility and public relations
Corporate websites and reputation management
Advertising and communication in new media
News media advertising
Surrogate advertising
Paid promotional news
Ethics and corruption in media relations
Mobile and public communication campaigns
Role of public relations in society
History of public relations in specific sectors (ex.: consultancy, education, health)
Contributors are encouraged to query the editors (,, in a short e-mail describing their paper to determine suitability for publication. Journal of Media Watch will only accept true, original and pure fundamental and empirical research papers which were not published before in any publications.
Abstract: The abstracts should define objectives, theoretical framework and methodological approach, as well as possible contributions for the advancement of knowledge in the field. As a length measure, each submission should have an abstract of 150-200 words. Authors should provide five or six keywords for their abstract to facilitate online searching. All abstract submissions must be submitted in advance, preferably before August 15, 2014 through e-mail. Early submission is strongly encouraged.
Length: As the journal is primarily print-based, we encourage articles or manuscripts, including references, tables, and charts, should range between 20-30 pages (7000-8000 words).
Deadlines:  Once the Abstract is reviewed and if it is found suitable, you will be asked to submit a completed manuscript by September 25, 2014. Review of the papers will be completed beforeOctober 15, 2014.
Style: References should also follow APA style (6th Edition).
Guidelines for submission are available at:
Title: Maximum 12 words
Review Process: Authors are informed when manuscripts are received. Each manuscript is pre-viewed prior to distribution to appropriate reviewers. Manuscripts are anonymously reviewed. Once all reviews are returned, a decision is made and the author is notified. Manuscripts should consist of original material, and not currently under consideration by other journals. Author(s) have to submit the copyrights declaration permission to Media Watch before final consideration of the paper.
Cover Page: (for review purposes): Include title of manuscript, date of submission, author’s name, title, mailing address, business and home phone number, and email address. Please provide a brief biographical sketch and acknowledge if the article was presented as a paper or if it reports a funded research project.
Software Format: Submit papers in both Word (.doc) and Pdf.
Indexing & Citations: Journal of Media Watch is indexed and citied in 15 international database, citation and indexing agencies including SCOPUS, PROQUEST, ISI, EBSCOS, Ulrich, Ebscos, J-Gate, Proquest, Google Scholar, ResearchBib, MIAR etc. Journal of Media Watch is subscribed in major university library data base in Asia, Europe and USA. Journal of Media Watch is considered for inclusion by the famous database such as ISI, Thomson Reuters, Dove Jones, and Nature.
Plagiarism Check: All the submitted papers will undergo mandatory online plagiarism check through plagiarism software’s such as Turnitin and Safe Assign. Contributors are encouraged to do plagiarism check before they submit for the publication. Any submitted paper with more than 7 % match will be rejected without any feedback from the editorial board.
Submission & Acceptance: Any paper published in any journals, book chapters, monograms or abstracts presented in any conference or published in any conference proceedings will not be published. We strongly discourage on the submission of any such.
We strongly recommend you share this call for papers among researchers who you think may be interested in submitting papers for the issue of the journal.
Information: For further information and inquiries about the proposed issue and journal, in case of need, please do not hesitate to contact the editor-in-chief of the journal, Dr. Sony Jalarajan Raj via e-mail:
If any organizations and institutions are interested to associate with Media Watch journal, please write to the Publisher:,
Dr. Sony Jalarajan RajEditor-in-Chief, The Journal of Media Watch
St. Thomas University, Florida, USA
Tel: 001-786-204-1031
Email your submission to:

Monday, 19 May 2014

Abstract: Media Watch May 2014

Abstract: Media Watch May 2014
(Vol. 5, No. 2)
Impact Factor: SJIF 3.276 | IIFS 0.993 | ISRA 0.834

Facebook Culture: Millennial Formation of Social Identity

Hilary K. U’Ren
Portland State University, USA
Social Networking Sites have become a rising trend over the past decade as a source of interaction on the internet., in particular, has become dangerously popular, with over 700 million active users to date. This study examines how Millennial’s use Facebook in order to regulate impression management and gain cultural capital through their virtual networks. Erving Goffman developed the concept of impression management as a method of censoring or altering the literal impression we are projecting to those around us in order to emanate a certain identity. Facebook aids this process by allowing us to actively edit exactly what we say about ourselves on a platform that is connected to everyone we know. Profiles were coded according to the nature of their About Me sections, profile photos, and count of online friends. Through simple random sampling amongst these categories of profiles, interviewees were selected. Each Millennial selected agreed to participate and was interviewed for a period of time ranging between thirty and sixty minutes. From this data, it was found that members of the Millennial generation use the site to manipulate the way they are perceived by various groups, like peers, coworkers, and parents, present on the site.

Offline Goes Online: Does the Internet Implement or Supplement our Communication and Relationships?
Kaja Tampere & Ave Tampere
Tallinn University, Estonia

This paper will be looking at the computer code-mediated communication and relationships between people. Questions, for which answers will be sought in the paper are—Does the Internet supplement or implement our communication and relationships? Supplement by filling in pieces of relationships that we would otherwise be missing out on; implement by creating or sustaining relationships that otherwise would not exist? How are relationships that were formed offline sustained online? How does the Internet change the concept of ‘long-distance’ in terms of communicating relationships? To study the topic of this paper, a literary analysis will be performed. The argument will be based on the example of Facebook. The study will focus on examples and theories covering the Western world where the research has been conducted and claims made.

Social Media and Documentary Cinema: the Arab Spring, the Wall Street Movement, Challenges and Implications for Documentary Filmmakers

Fritz Kohle
Edinburgh University, UK

Used by millions on a daily basis Web 2 and social media have become part of our lives; Facebook arguably developed into the largest online group worldwide with some 800 million users – or one seventh of the world’s population. (Facebook, 2011) This paper reviews social media and provides a general overview of the same from the perspective of an independent documentary filmmaker. The paper investigates use of social media during the Arab Spring and Wall Street Movement (Occupy, 2011) and compares social- with traditional media. Using the example of the documentary ‘God, Church, Pills & Condoms’ (F Kohle, A Cuevas, 2011) the tools social media offers are examined and their applications are discussed. Web 2 is the accumulative sum of print, radio, TV and film, offering an ever-increasing amount of content. What are the implications and challenges for Documentary filmmakers? How can documentary filmmakers explore the full potential of social media? Does social media really offer an alternative to traditional content commissioning, content development and distribution as well as fund raising? The paper concludes by examining future trends for social media and potential applications in documentary filmmaking.

Media Morality in a Postmodern Era: A Model for Ethics Restoration
in the Mass Media

Kingsley Okoro Harbor
Jacksonville State University, USA

This paper develops a chronology of milestones in mass media ethics from inception to contemporary times, demonstrating that media ethics has been on the decline throughout mass media’s history. As a response to the continual decline of ethics in the mass media, this paper proposes a model for restoring ethics to the mass media. The model has four corner stones: (i) journalism and mass communication curricular revision, (ii) student entry placement, (iii) revised training for future journalists, and (iv) journalistic de-collectivization, a term used by this author to describe the act of shielding a journalist from the impact of corporate culture in the newsroom. Essential theoretical frameworks guiding the model include Kohlberg’s moral development theory and Patterson and Wilkins’s ethical news values.

Bollywoodization of the War on Terror

Daya Thussu
University of Westminster, London, UK

In the decade since 9/11, the ‘war on terror’ has been framed in mainstream global media discourses predominantly as a conflict between medievalist Islamic terrorists and the modern West, led by the United States. In India, where the media market has grown exponentially along the lines of the US commercially led model, the media discourse has broadly followed this global trajectory. After providing an overview of terrorism in India, this article focuses on the coverage of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai on 26 November 2008, the most extensively covered terrorism story outside the Western world.  The article shows how during ‘India’s 9/11,’ media and communication technologies intersected to create a tele-visual spectacle, in a fiercely competitive media market, one increasingly shaped by an infotainment-driven news culture. Such ‘Bollywoodization’ of the ‘war on terror,’ the article suggests, contributes to presenting grim realities of political conflicts as a feast of visually arresting, emotionally-charged entertainment – genres skilfully borrowed from India’s bourgeoning film industry, to sustain ratings.

Political Economy of Corporate Power and Free Speech
in the United States

Jeffrey Layne Blevins
University of Cincinnati, USA

This political economic analysis of U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence broadly examines corporate speech rights in campaigns and elections, in commercial speech, and in conflicts between speech and privacy.  From this examination, it appears that corporate wealth has expressed its dominance within communication space, which was once the primary domain of human liberty.  Moreover, the analysis demonstrates the ‘historical amnesia’ expressed within the Supreme Court about the revolutionary potential of electronic media, as corporate encroachment of communication space is diminishing the value of human speech under the law.

Journalism Ethics: The Uneven Tempo between
International Principles and Local Practice

Kiranjit Kaur & Halimahton Shaari
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia

Media codes of ethics comprise principles of ethics and good practice.  Though media codes may vary from country to country, the global media and communication profession is guided by principles that share many common values for the simple reason that many social and individual values are universal.  In the journalism profession, as an example, ethical practice would almost always revolve around universal values like accuracy, honesty, truth, objectivity and freedom. Though the Malaysian media adopt and practise many international principles, media practitioners have also to take cognizance of the socio-political sensitivities and sensibilities that shape and influence the workings and contents of the media. Qualitative interviews with media practitioners provide insights into how values and principles, both local and international, either go in tandem or clash and impact on media practices. This paper also studies the practicality and applicability of media codes in the face of rapidly-changing media values, contents and technology.  The media occasionally violate ethical boundaries; however these are sometimes not perceived as digressions by media practitioners as media values and roles undergo a facelift.
Press Coverage of Post Tamil Eelam War in Dinamani
C. J. Ravi Krishnan, C. Pichandy & Francis Barclay
PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, India

The war for Tamil Eelam and the last battle at northern region of Sri Lanka between the government and LTTE has been seriously viewed and reported by media around the world. However ‘Eelam’ is an issue close to the heart of the Tamils in the world. The present study has chosen the post-war period for two years  from January 2009 to January 2011 to find out how the Tamil print media in Tamil Nadu reacted to the end of the LTTE regime in Sri Lankan northern province and the sentiments of the Tamil population. Editorials and columns of Tamil daily, Dinamani considered for the study. The study revealed that editorials and columns published during that time exposed violations of human rights by Sri Lankan government. The study also found the role played by the Indian and Tamil Nadu government during and after the war period were not satisfactory in the context of dealing the Sri Lankan Tamilian issues. 

Media Effects of Assam State Assembly Elections 2011
Kh. Kabi
Rajiv Gandhi University, India.
Anupa Lahkar
Assam Don Bosco University, India

Election is one of the most significant exercises particularly in a democracy, wherein citizens participate to elect their representative. For the first time in the history of Assam (Northeast India) State Assembly Election, campaign was carried out in the presence of wide media coverage. This study focuses on the impact of media’s coverage of the election campaigns during the last Assam state assembly election held in 2011.  It examined the role of media in setting the agenda of important election issues and its impact on the opinion of the people. Attempts have been made to find out the effects of political campaign on the potential voters in view of their political opinion formation and their decision to participate and vote for a particular party or candidate. The study revealed that majority of them has been impacted by the media coverage to some extent and it has aroused them to participate and vote. However when it came to their voting behavior, it is their personal choice and reasons that matter and not necessarily due to media’s campaign. 

Cross-Media Ownership: Would It be Really Curbed?

Shivaji Sarkar

India has been debating the issue of cross-media ownership for the last over 60 years. It is not that it is being raised by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) at the behest of the ministry of information and broadcasting for the first time. In fact, TRAI in its paper expresses limitation on checkmating cross-media ownership. Rather softly it has given it up. TRAI chairman Rahul Khullar said the regulator would, with the help of the Competition Commission of India, attempt to ensure that there are a minimum number of mergers and acquisitions. A consultation paper will spell out restrictions, make mandatory disclosure requirements, spell out levels of market share which will ensure plurality and diversity, list general disqualifications, recommend how cross media ownership can be dealt with, set rules for disaggregated markets, and ensure minimum mergers and acquisitions.

For information, please contact:
Editor, Media Watch
S C S College Road
Near Amala Club
Puri-752 001, Odisha, India

Tel: +91-94395 37641

Saturday, 18 January 2014

Abstract of Articles in January 2014 Issue

Abstract of Articles in January 2014 Issue

Visual Proof: Identifying a Pattern in Photographic Coverage of a Social Movement

Michael B. Friedman
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA
This study compared the photographic news coverage of the Occupy Wall Street protests from two competing New York City tabloid newspapers on opposite sides of the political spectrum, the New York Post (conservative) and the Daily News (liberal). The purpose of the study was to determine if there were any differences in the photographic coverage of the Occupy Wall Street protests between the two media outlets.  A content analysis was conducted to detect and confirm any statistically significant differences in photographic coverage. Results showed that the differences in photographic coverage were significantly different suggesting that each media outlet may have presented the photographs to express a specific opinion of the protests. The study also determined that social proof is a useful theory for detecting a pattern of selection in photographic coverage of a social movement.

Articulations of Gender Ideology: A Discourse Analysis of Online Public Comments on the Delhi Gang-Rape on Firstpost.Com

Ruchi Jaggi
Symbiosis Institute of Media & Communication, Pune, India

On December 16, 2012, a 23 year-old girl was brutally gang-raped by six men, including one minor, on a moving bus while her male friend was assaulted in Delhi. Both of the victims were attacked with an iron rod and the girl was severely injured and later died. The media was quick to hype cringe-worthy comments made by people in the limelight. The discourse around status of women in the society, patriarchal norms, gender sensitivity and umpteen related constructs became the content of comment threads on various web pages. The articulation of these discourses on a digital medium is both conflicting and intriguing. This paper will attempt to conduct the discourse analysis of the comment threads on few websites that posted updates around this mishap. Since the online medium gives people the advantage of anonymity which may not otherwise be available to them in the public sphere, the constructs of identity and ideology become even more critical. This research paper will attempt to identify the dominant discourses, analyse their ideological context and the potential and the role of digital media in these constructions. Does the digital media ecosystem reinforce the hegemonic ideologies or does it provide the space for liberal and alternative ideologies? Do perceptions of gender and sexuality assume fluid meanings or get re-negotiated in the digital media context? This research will attempt to use the discourse analysis of the web comment threads around the brutal mishap to discuss and analyse these questions.
Connect to Conspire: Scope of Social Media in Gorkhaland Statehood Movement

Sharda Chhetri
All India Women’s Conference, Darjeeling, India

The recent ‘Gorkhaland movement’ offered a story in contrast to the previous movement of the mid-eighties which had lasted for over 22 months and had resulted in the death of over 1,200 people. This time it lasted for slightly over a month and highlighted by the death of a youth who immolated himself in a busy public square. Both were fired by the imagination of a people in their ideological “search for identity.” But how were the two different? Social media played a big role and Facebook, Twitter and other blogspots became war zones where battles were fought and enemies vanquished. An interesting form of communication in which people voiced dissent by locking themselves up inside homes in the Ghaar Bhitra Junta movement was seen. Leaders made use of the social media at a time when the administration had shut down the broadcast of the local channels. It makes a good study in mob-mobilisation and cyber-psychology. Twenty-seven years ago, during the previous movement when internet was unheard of, people had resorted to ingenious means of communication. This paper will try to bring forth the contrast and the changes that new Information and Communication Technologies have brought in social movements.

The ‘Rise of the Rest’: Schumpeter’s Theory of Creative Destruction in the Age of Digital Media

Mohanmeet Khosla
Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

The advent of ICT brought about a process of industrial mutation that, clubbed with the recent economic turmoil, has seen markets, businesses and managements focus on mobility, ubiquity and entrepreneurial innovation as survival strategies. This paper analyses the fall of the media moghuls against the rise of the twitteratti; it argues that we are at the edge of a blast wave of consumer-driven change, one that is tight on performance but loose on tactics; it focuses on the paradox of digital convergence on the one hand and content diversity on the other. How can we best define the role of mediated communication in its multiple technological avatars? Is it becoming a God of Small Things, particularly where social justice is concerned? Or is it just another instance of cultural imperialism? Is it confirming or challenging the public service orientation of the media? Is it creating tipping points that shift relationships among social, financial, and political systems? Or is it becoming a Tower of Babel in the name of alternative voices and discourses? – are the other specifics addressed. Given the global interconnectedness of media today, the paper primarily seeks to take Schumpeter’s theory of Creative Destruction out of the purview of economics alone and link it to the larger issue of change as the new constant for our next evolutionary leap– as cyborgs.

Technology Synergy Eco-System between HD Video DSLR and New Social Media Platform

Gary Chong Khin Jin  &  N V Prasad
School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia

This paper will engage with the concept of a ‘technology synergy eco-system’ which blends together the two core elements of HD video DSLR and the new social media platform to determine, if this could actually be a potent formula for the emergence of a potential alternative virtual cinema. This alternative virtual cinema has both connotations as a medium of transmission of a certain film to the masses and also elements of film techniques in terms of aesthetics and etc. It is beyond a shadow of a doubt that in this current day and age, we can see that the social new media has impacted practically every facet of society. The question beckons then, what about cinema? Does the level of interactivity in which the social new media provides, combined with the affordability and ease of using a HD video DSLR to produce videos with high production values and cinematic quality nuances serve as a precursor to the trends and patterns which might lead up to an alternative virtual cinema? With these exciting questions in mind, it is of great interest to us as modern day filmmakers, in exploring and giving an exposition into this subject matter, to deconstruct the elements and see if the possibility is viable or merely an idealistic notion.

Culture and Globalisation: The Indian Creative Industries

Mrinmoy Majumder
Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad, India

The processes of globalization have stirred different cultural practices resulting in cultural homogenization where local cultures are merged into a single macro cultural domain. This macro cultural domain is a result of the fusion of different cultures that have given the local cultures a new order and form. Here the local cultures seem to have lost their own identity and representation. Furthermore, due to the ambiguous nature of the global cultural flow other cultures that are in local or national form have sought to find their space among the chaos of global culture. Similar effects have been felt in the creative industries due to the proliferation of globalization further causing an air of change in the creative content and production. Hence, this conceptual study will look into two cases of Bollywood cinema and Indian rock music both facing an ongoing tension related to content creating ambiguity and imbalance, among its (content) creators and audiences.

Escape and Re-Colonization of Waka Waka: Shakira’s Performance at the 2010 World Cup

Mississippi State University, USA

In 2010, Waka Waka was chosen as the anthem for the FIFA World Cup held in South Africa, and Shakira, a well known vocal artist, was appointed the task of performing. The lyrics of the song present a message of world unity.  But, a semiotic reading of the official video presents a different interpretation. This paper examines the conflicts between Waka Waka’s lyrics and its cinematography, while delving deeper into its underlying colonialism.

Role of Wikis in School Education

Hemant Shrivastava
Indian Institute of Management, Indore, India

The main agenda of this paper is to provide a review of literature on the role of Web 2.0 or social software tools particularly wikis in school education because it is an under-researched area. Though it is a versatile tool to leverage the information in multimodal environment, including video, sound, animation, as well as, static text and image it has not been actively used in the context of school education especially in the Indian context. Today’s educators are hesitant in using the web 2.0 technology because they feel overwhelmed by the range of choices it offers. The paper tries to evolve framework that can be employed to use wikis. It examines the issues that have surfaced from the review especially those that affect pedagogy due to adoption of web 2.0 technologies. The advantages of wikis to students, educators and institutions as well as the challenges that accompany such initiative and the host of problems that need to be addressed in using wikis in school education is enumerated. This paper incorporates the analysis out of the review and highlights the different pedagogical roles of web2.0 technologies with reference to communication, innovation, and collaborative learning and challenging the imagination of children. The analysis answers the concerns of academicians about the inclusion of web 2.0 technologies and the findings can influence learning and teaching strategies in various echelons of education. The paper integrates the perspective by consolidating a variety of literature sources from academic publications, recent Newspaper and magazine reports on social network sites and commentaries and views on social media itself. A major limitation of this paper is lack of empirical evidences in the Indian context for rigorous analysis and does not analyse the reason for this paradoxical situation.

Revisiting the Contours of Media Education: A Study in the Indian Context

Kapil Kumar Bhattacharya
Centre for Journalism & Mass Communication, Visva-Bharati, India

Media education should not be merely about making media professionals. It should rather be about enlightening the citizens. The problem lies in the basic approach to media education which is essentially considered to be a vocational course. This approach in itself results in segmentation of the students from the very beginning. While all students of political Science do not end up becoming politicians and all students of Sociology do not end up becoming sociologists, Media Education, unfortunately, is essentially projected as a subject whose primary focus is upon producing media professionals. However, just as the primary focus of teaching political Science and Sociology is creating political and social sensibility, the primary focus of teaching media education should be creating media sensibility/ awareness among the youth of the nation as the media has emerged as a force to reckon with in today’s scenario. Thus, they need to be aware of the powers and functions of the media so that they may judge the stance taken by the media in regional, national and even the international affairs. This paper shall strive to throw some light upon such issues through both theoretical and practical approaches such as content analysis and surveys.

Cultural Diversity in Television Advertisements in Entertainment Channels

Daivata Patil
University of Mumbai, India

Social attitudes towards multiculturalism can be checked by measuring representations of ethnicity in television advertisements. The current research conducts a quantitative content analysis of television commercials. The researcher first recorded the frequency of representation of characters from varied culturally diverse backgrounds in television advertisements and then examined the nature of role portrayals on the basis of religion and skin tone of the characters. The sampling technique used is purposive wherein advertisements broadcasted during prime time of two leading entertainment channel—Star Plus and Colors were recorded and analysed. The criteria for selection of units of analysis in ads was that all the characters selected had at least one line of dialog or they appeared on screen for at least five seconds.

The Dialectical Cinema of Tomas Gutierrez Alea: Insights for Indian Cinema

Ira Sahasrabudhe

One cannot hope to create meaningful popular dialectical cinema by accusing mainstream cinema of being vacuous, of having sold out to the lowest denominator, or of functioning as a narcotic for the masses. Neither can opposing mass aesthetics or desire for delusion swing the other extreme where ‘meaningful’ cinema gains only from its purported opposition to mass-cinema, forcing the viewer into a discussion he might be resistant to. Lastly, a medium of mass consumption cannot be successfully co-opted under the program of ‘instruction’ alone. I believe traditional methods of trying to qualify cinema by framing it within an oppositional paradigm of form and content are absurd, as they are both intertwined. The journey from mass amusement to mass instruction or of belonging to a niche group is doomed from the beginning. Rather than trapping the viewer into a debate, cinema can explore its potential better by drawing him into a contemplation and discussion about the film, in other words, making him a more participative, meaning-making entity.